This paper evaluates the relationships between copper species in sediments and accumulation by the purple clam (Hiatula diphos) and venus clam (Gomphina aeguilatera) collected from the field and culture (aquaculture) ponds in the polluted coastal area of Lukang, Taiwan. Sediment was sampled along with the molluscs, including oysters (Crassostrea gigas), purple clams (Hiatula diphos), rock-shells (Thais clavigera), venus clams (Gomphina aeguilatera), and hard clams (Meretrix lusoria), from two unique environments of Lukang during the period from August 1993 to July 1994. The data indicate that the total copper concentrations in sediments from culture ponds (185 μg g-1) was higher than those of the field (44.0 μg g-1). Copper species in sediments were analyzed by a sequential leaching technique. Results show that concentrations of various copper species in the sediments are in the range of 1.14 ± 0.59 to 13.2 ± 22.4 μg g-1 and 0.36 ± 0.24 to 133 ± 36.7 μg g-1 for the two environments, respectively. Also the exchangeable copper in sediment from culture ponds was 15 times higher than that from the field. In addition, the sum of exchangeable and copper carbonates had the highest percentages of copper in both the pond sediment (86.6%) and the field sediment (50.7%). Maximum copper concentrations (309 ± 35.1 μg g-1) in oysters were much higher than those in the other benthic organisms by about 4-127 times. Similarly, the data also showed that copper concentrations in Thais clavigera were 12-32 times higher than those in other benthic organisms. Copper concentrations in various benthic organisms differed significantly (p <0.05) from that in Thais clavigera. This capacity makes Thais clavigera a potential candidate for monitoring copper in marine sediments. In terms of copper species, the best correlation was generally obtained between copper carbonates in sediments and copper concentrations in Hiatula diphos (r = 0.886*). A strong multiple regression correlation (p <0.05, r2 = 0.7894) also indicates that the copper carbonates may dominate as the available form of copper to Hiatula diphos from various environments in the Lukang coastal area under natural physicochemical conditions.
- Copper speciation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science(all)
- Environmental Chemistry
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)