Recent avian poisonings suggest a secondary poisoning crisis of black kites during the 1980s in Taiwan

S.-Y. Hong, H.-S. Lin, B.A. Walther, J.-E. Shie, Y.-H. Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Black Kite (Milvus migrans) has a limited distribution within Taiwan due to a dramatic population decrease during the late 20th century. Prompted by some poisoning incidents of Black Kites and other farmland birds, we hypothesized that poisoning may be an underreported yet important threat. Thus, we created a citizen-science Facebook group in October 2014 in order to receive more information about possible poisoning incidents. By September 2016, we had received reports of 4753 dead birds in 213 separate poisoning incidents in agricultural areas. The types of fields most often associated with poisoning incidents were direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa), rice that was soon to be harvested, and red beans (Vigna angularis). We tested tissues from 29 dead small birds for pesticide residues. Twenty-eight birds contained carbofuran, and one bird contained terbufos, both highly toxic pesticides. Furthermore, of seven dead Black Kites tested from 2010 to 2016, four contained carbofuran, and three contained second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. After interviewing farmers and reviewing older agricultural literature, we concluded that most of these incidents represented intentional poisonings by farmers attempting to control avian pests and rats (mostly Bandicota indica and Rattus spp.). We suggest that the Black Kites were likely the victims of inadvertent secondary poisoning incidents. The dramatic decrease of the Black Kite in the 1980s coincided with the rapid increase in the area planted with direct-seeded rice and the widespread use of carbofuran and rodenticides. The recent decreased use of these pesticides due to restrictions has coincided with the recent slow recovery of the Black Kite population. Therefore we initiated public awareness campaigns, and the Taiwanese government has adjusted some pesticide-use policies. © 2018 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)326-337
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Raptor Research
Volume52
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Taiwan
poisoning
Milvus migrans
carbofuran
birds
rodenticides
pesticides
rice
Bandicota
terbufos
Vigna angularis
farmers
red beans
Rattus
anticoagulants
pesticide residues
birds of prey
agricultural land
Oryza sativa
pests

Keywords

  • Black Kite
  • carbofuran
  • citizen science
  • direct-seeded rice
  • Facebook
  • Milvus migrans
  • pesticides
  • rodenticides
  • scavenger
  • Aves
  • Bandicota indica
  • Milvus
  • Oryza sativa
  • Rattus
  • Vigna angularis

Cite this

Recent avian poisonings suggest a secondary poisoning crisis of black kites during the 1980s in Taiwan. / Hong, S.-Y.; Lin, H.-S.; Walther, B.A.; Shie, J.-E.; Sun, Y.-H.

In: Journal of Raptor Research, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2018, p. 326-337.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hong, S.-Y. ; Lin, H.-S. ; Walther, B.A. ; Shie, J.-E. ; Sun, Y.-H. / Recent avian poisonings suggest a secondary poisoning crisis of black kites during the 1980s in Taiwan. In: Journal of Raptor Research. 2018 ; Vol. 52, No. 3. pp. 326-337.
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title = "Recent avian poisonings suggest a secondary poisoning crisis of black kites during the 1980s in Taiwan",
abstract = "The Black Kite (Milvus migrans) has a limited distribution within Taiwan due to a dramatic population decrease during the late 20th century. Prompted by some poisoning incidents of Black Kites and other farmland birds, we hypothesized that poisoning may be an underreported yet important threat. Thus, we created a citizen-science Facebook group in October 2014 in order to receive more information about possible poisoning incidents. By September 2016, we had received reports of 4753 dead birds in 213 separate poisoning incidents in agricultural areas. The types of fields most often associated with poisoning incidents were direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa), rice that was soon to be harvested, and red beans (Vigna angularis). We tested tissues from 29 dead small birds for pesticide residues. Twenty-eight birds contained carbofuran, and one bird contained terbufos, both highly toxic pesticides. Furthermore, of seven dead Black Kites tested from 2010 to 2016, four contained carbofuran, and three contained second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. After interviewing farmers and reviewing older agricultural literature, we concluded that most of these incidents represented intentional poisonings by farmers attempting to control avian pests and rats (mostly Bandicota indica and Rattus spp.). We suggest that the Black Kites were likely the victims of inadvertent secondary poisoning incidents. The dramatic decrease of the Black Kite in the 1980s coincided with the rapid increase in the area planted with direct-seeded rice and the widespread use of carbofuran and rodenticides. The recent decreased use of these pesticides due to restrictions has coincided with the recent slow recovery of the Black Kite population. Therefore we initiated public awareness campaigns, and the Taiwanese government has adjusted some pesticide-use policies. {\circledC} 2018 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.",
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author = "S.-Y. Hong and H.-S. Lin and B.A. Walther and J.-E. Shie and Y.-H. Sun",
note = "引用次數:1 Export Date: 12 October 2018 出資詳情: 96AS-14.6.2-BQ-B1 出資詳情: TMU, Taipei Medical University 出資詳情: NUST, National University of Sciences and Technology 出資正文: We thank the Taiwan Forestry Bureau (project number: 104FM-1.1-C-17), Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (project number: 96AS-14.6.2-BQ-B1), and the Pingtung County Government for financial support and research permits, and Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute, ABM International Lab Inc., and Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute for providing technical assistance. We give special thanks to C. C. Shen, E. P. Hsiao, and W. H. Lin for personal communication; Pingtung Wildlife Rescue Center and Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology, for providing professional assistance; and the members of the Facebook groups ‘‘Bird Poison Report, Taiwan’’ and ‘‘Reptile Road Mortality’’ and the Tainan Jacana Ecological Education Park for field sighting reports. BAW was financially supported by Taipei Medical University. 參考文獻: Allen, G.T., Veatch, J.K., Stroud, R.K., Vendel, C.G., Poppenga, R.H., Thompson, L., Shafer, J.A., Braselton, W.E., Winter poisoning of coyotes and raptors with furadan-laced carcass baits (1996) Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 32, pp. 385-389; Balcomb, R., Secondary poisoning of Red-shouldered Hawks with carbofuran (1983) Journal of Wildlife Management, 47, pp. 1129-1132; Berny, P., Pesticides and the intoxication of wild animals (2007) Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 30, pp. 93-100; Berny, P., Velardo, J., Pulce, C., D'Amico, A., Kammerer, M., Lasseur, R., Prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in humans and animals in France and substances involved (2010) Clinical Toxicology, 48, pp. 935-941; Berny, P., Vilagines, L., Cugnasse, J.-M., Mastain, O., Chollet, J.-Y., Joncour, G., Razin, M., Vigilance Poison: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France) (2015) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 118, pp. 71-82; (2016) Species Factsheet: Milvus Migrans, , http://www.birdlife.org, BirdLife International; (2016) Species Factsheet: Milvus Milvus, , http://www.birdlife.org, BirdLife International; Bruggers, R.L., Rodriguez, E., Zaccagnini, M.E., Planning for bird pest problem resolution: A case study (1998) International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 42, pp. 173-184; Buechley, E.R., Sxekercioglu, {\cC}.H., The avian scavenger crisis: Looming extinctions, trophic cascades, and loss of critical ecosystem functions (2016) Biological Conservation, 198, pp. 220-228; Carson, R., (1962) Silent Spring, , Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, USA; Chen, B.H., Yen, C.W., (1973) Ecological Research of Forest Birds in Taiwan, , Tunghai University Environmental Science Research Center, Taichung, Taiwan; Chiu, Y.Q., Method described for direct-seeded rice (1995) Kaohsiung District Agricultural Newsletter, 11, pp. 8-9; Costantini, D., Land-use changes and agriculture in the tropics: Pesticides as an overlooked threat to wildlife (2015) Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, pp. 1837-1839; (2016) Agricultural Statistics Database, , http://agrstat.coa.gov.tw/sdweb/public/inquiry/InquireAdvance.aspx, Council of Agriculture. Taipei, Taiwan; Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., (1994) Handbook of the Birds of the World, 2. , New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain; Dietrich, D.R., Schmid, P., Zweifel, U., Schlatter, C., Jenni-Eiermann, S., Bachmann, H., B{\"u}hler, U., Zbinden, N., Mortality of birds of prey following field application of granular carbofuran: A case study (1995) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 29, pp. 140-145; Ding, T.S., Shen, C.C., Ho, H.J., Lin, W.H., Lin, S.M., Yao, C.T., Yuan, H.W., Lu, D.J., Conservation action plan of black kite in Taiwan (2004) Raptor Research Group of Taiwan, , Taipei, Taiwan; Elliott, J.E., Wilson, L.K., Langelier, K.M., Mineau, P., Sinclair, P.H., Secondary poisoning of birds of prey by the organophosphorus insecticide, phorate (1997) Ecotoxicology, 6, pp. 219-231; Erickson, W.A., Urban, D.J., Potential risks of nine rodenticides to birds and nontarget mammals: A comparative approach (2004) United States Environmental Protection Agency, , Washington, DC, USA; Fang, W.H., (2005) A Guide to Threatened Birds of Taiwan, , Owl Publishing House, Taipei, Taiwan; Firake, D., Behere, G., Chandra, S., An environmentally benign and cost-effective technique for reducing bird damage to sprouting soybean seeds (2016) Field Crops Research, 188, pp. 74-81; Flickinger, E.L., Mitchell, C.A., White, D.H., Kolbe, E.J., Bird poisoning from misuse of the carbamate furadan in a Texas rice field (1986) Wildlife Society Bulletin, 14, pp. 59-62; Fujisaka, S., Dapusala, A., Jayson, E., Hail Mary, kill the cat: A case of traditional upland crop pest control in the Philippines (1989) Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 17, pp. 202-211; Goutner, V., Becker, P., Liordos, V., Organochlorines and mercury in livers of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender (2011) Science of the Total Environment, 409, pp. 710-718; Guo, D.R., Lin, W.H., (1992) Investigation on Raptors in Taiwan (I), , 1991 Ecology Research Report No. 33; Ho, X.Q., Integrated demonstration of directseeded rice cultivation technology in Tainan (1994) Tainan District Agricultural Newsletter, 8, pp. 2-3. , Council of Agriculture, Taiwan; Hwang, Y.R., Studies on bird damage to paddy rice and its control machinery (1974) Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23, pp. 51-68; La Touche, J., Notes on the birds of northern Formosa (1898) Ibis, 40, pp. 356-373; Li, C.Y., Cultivation techniques of direct-seeding rice in Hualien (1986) Hualien District Agricultural Promotion Newsletters, 3, pp. 5-6; Lin, Q.Y., Guild of crop protection series 8 (2003) Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, , Taipei, Taiwan; Lu, G.H., Strategies of rodent control (2004) International Symposium of Plant Health Management, , Taipei, Taiwan; Lumeij, J.T., Remple, J.D., Redig, P.T., Lierz, M., Cooper, J.E., Raptor biomedicine III (2000) Zoological Education Network, , Lake Worth, FL, USA; Margalida, A., Baits, budget cuts: A deadly mix (2012) Science, 338, p. 192; M{\'a}rquez, C., Vargas, J.M., Villafuerte, R., Fa, J.E., Risk mapping of illegal poisoning of avian and mammalian predators (2013) Journal of Wildlife Management, 77, pp. 75-83; Mineau, P., Fletcher, M.R., Glaser, L., Thomas, N., Brassard, C., Wilson, L., Elliott, J., Bollinger, T., Poisoning of raptors with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides with emphasis on Canada, US and UK (1999) Journal of Raptor Research, 33, pp. 1-37; Mullie, W.C., Keith, J.O., The effects of aerially applied fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on birds in the savannah of northern Senegal (1993) Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, pp. 536-550; Muzinic, J., Poisoning of seventeen Eurasian Griffons (Gyps fulvus) in Croatia (2007) Journal of Raptor Research, 41, pp. 239-242; Newton, I., (1979) Population Ecology of Raptors, , T. and A. 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year = "2018",
doi = "10.3356/JRR-17-40.1",
language = "English",
volume = "52",
pages = "326--337",
journal = "Journal of Raptor Research",
issn = "0892-1016",
publisher = "Ornithological Societies of North America",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recent avian poisonings suggest a secondary poisoning crisis of black kites during the 1980s in Taiwan

AU - Hong, S.-Y.

AU - Lin, H.-S.

AU - Walther, B.A.

AU - Shie, J.-E.

AU - Sun, Y.-H.

N1 - 引用次數:1 Export Date: 12 October 2018 出資詳情: 96AS-14.6.2-BQ-B1 出資詳情: TMU, Taipei Medical University 出資詳情: NUST, National University of Sciences and Technology 出資正文: We thank the Taiwan Forestry Bureau (project number: 104FM-1.1-C-17), Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (project number: 96AS-14.6.2-BQ-B1), and the Pingtung County Government for financial support and research permits, and Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute, ABM International Lab Inc., and Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute for providing technical assistance. We give special thanks to C. C. Shen, E. P. Hsiao, and W. H. Lin for personal communication; Pingtung Wildlife Rescue Center and Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology, for providing professional assistance; and the members of the Facebook groups ‘‘Bird Poison Report, Taiwan’’ and ‘‘Reptile Road Mortality’’ and the Tainan Jacana Ecological Education Park for field sighting reports. BAW was financially supported by Taipei Medical University. 參考文獻: Allen, G.T., Veatch, J.K., Stroud, R.K., Vendel, C.G., Poppenga, R.H., Thompson, L., Shafer, J.A., Braselton, W.E., Winter poisoning of coyotes and raptors with furadan-laced carcass baits (1996) Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 32, pp. 385-389; Balcomb, R., Secondary poisoning of Red-shouldered Hawks with carbofuran (1983) Journal of Wildlife Management, 47, pp. 1129-1132; Berny, P., Pesticides and the intoxication of wild animals (2007) Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 30, pp. 93-100; Berny, P., Velardo, J., Pulce, C., D'Amico, A., Kammerer, M., Lasseur, R., Prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in humans and animals in France and substances involved (2010) Clinical Toxicology, 48, pp. 935-941; Berny, P., Vilagines, L., Cugnasse, J.-M., Mastain, O., Chollet, J.-Y., Joncour, G., Razin, M., Vigilance Poison: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France) (2015) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 118, pp. 71-82; (2016) Species Factsheet: Milvus Migrans, , http://www.birdlife.org, BirdLife International; (2016) Species Factsheet: Milvus Milvus, , http://www.birdlife.org, BirdLife International; Bruggers, R.L., Rodriguez, E., Zaccagnini, M.E., Planning for bird pest problem resolution: A case study (1998) International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 42, pp. 173-184; Buechley, E.R., Sxekercioglu, Ç.H., The avian scavenger crisis: Looming extinctions, trophic cascades, and loss of critical ecosystem functions (2016) Biological Conservation, 198, pp. 220-228; Carson, R., (1962) Silent Spring, , Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, USA; Chen, B.H., Yen, C.W., (1973) Ecological Research of Forest Birds in Taiwan, , Tunghai University Environmental Science Research Center, Taichung, Taiwan; Chiu, Y.Q., Method described for direct-seeded rice (1995) Kaohsiung District Agricultural Newsletter, 11, pp. 8-9; Costantini, D., Land-use changes and agriculture in the tropics: Pesticides as an overlooked threat to wildlife (2015) Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, pp. 1837-1839; (2016) Agricultural Statistics Database, , http://agrstat.coa.gov.tw/sdweb/public/inquiry/InquireAdvance.aspx, Council of Agriculture. Taipei, Taiwan; Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., (1994) Handbook of the Birds of the World, 2. , New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain; Dietrich, D.R., Schmid, P., Zweifel, U., Schlatter, C., Jenni-Eiermann, S., Bachmann, H., Bühler, U., Zbinden, N., Mortality of birds of prey following field application of granular carbofuran: A case study (1995) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 29, pp. 140-145; Ding, T.S., Shen, C.C., Ho, H.J., Lin, W.H., Lin, S.M., Yao, C.T., Yuan, H.W., Lu, D.J., Conservation action plan of black kite in Taiwan (2004) Raptor Research Group of Taiwan, , Taipei, Taiwan; Elliott, J.E., Wilson, L.K., Langelier, K.M., Mineau, P., Sinclair, P.H., Secondary poisoning of birds of prey by the organophosphorus insecticide, phorate (1997) Ecotoxicology, 6, pp. 219-231; Erickson, W.A., Urban, D.J., Potential risks of nine rodenticides to birds and nontarget mammals: A comparative approach (2004) United States Environmental Protection Agency, , Washington, DC, USA; Fang, W.H., (2005) A Guide to Threatened Birds of Taiwan, , Owl Publishing House, Taipei, Taiwan; Firake, D., Behere, G., Chandra, S., An environmentally benign and cost-effective technique for reducing bird damage to sprouting soybean seeds (2016) Field Crops Research, 188, pp. 74-81; Flickinger, E.L., Mitchell, C.A., White, D.H., Kolbe, E.J., Bird poisoning from misuse of the carbamate furadan in a Texas rice field (1986) Wildlife Society Bulletin, 14, pp. 59-62; Fujisaka, S., Dapusala, A., Jayson, E., Hail Mary, kill the cat: A case of traditional upland crop pest control in the Philippines (1989) Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 17, pp. 202-211; Goutner, V., Becker, P., Liordos, V., Organochlorines and mercury in livers of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender (2011) Science of the Total Environment, 409, pp. 710-718; Guo, D.R., Lin, W.H., (1992) Investigation on Raptors in Taiwan (I), , 1991 Ecology Research Report No. 33; Ho, X.Q., Integrated demonstration of directseeded rice cultivation technology in Tainan (1994) Tainan District Agricultural Newsletter, 8, pp. 2-3. , Council of Agriculture, Taiwan; Hwang, Y.R., Studies on bird damage to paddy rice and its control machinery (1974) Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23, pp. 51-68; La Touche, J., Notes on the birds of northern Formosa (1898) Ibis, 40, pp. 356-373; Li, C.Y., Cultivation techniques of direct-seeding rice in Hualien (1986) Hualien District Agricultural Promotion Newsletters, 3, pp. 5-6; Lin, Q.Y., Guild of crop protection series 8 (2003) Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, , Taipei, Taiwan; Lu, G.H., Strategies of rodent control (2004) International Symposium of Plant Health Management, , Taipei, Taiwan; Lumeij, J.T., Remple, J.D., Redig, P.T., Lierz, M., Cooper, J.E., Raptor biomedicine III (2000) Zoological Education Network, , Lake Worth, FL, USA; Margalida, A., Baits, budget cuts: A deadly mix (2012) Science, 338, p. 192; Márquez, C., Vargas, J.M., Villafuerte, R., Fa, J.E., Risk mapping of illegal poisoning of avian and mammalian predators (2013) Journal of Wildlife Management, 77, pp. 75-83; Mineau, P., Fletcher, M.R., Glaser, L., Thomas, N., Brassard, C., Wilson, L., Elliott, J., Bollinger, T., Poisoning of raptors with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides with emphasis on Canada, US and UK (1999) Journal of Raptor Research, 33, pp. 1-37; Mullie, W.C., Keith, J.O., The effects of aerially applied fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on birds in the savannah of northern Senegal (1993) Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, pp. 536-550; Muzinic, J., Poisoning of seventeen Eurasian Griffons (Gyps fulvus) in Croatia (2007) Journal of Raptor Research, 41, pp. 239-242; Newton, I., (1979) Population Ecology of Raptors, , T. and A. D. Poyser, London, UK; Newton, I., Wyllie, I., Freestone, P., Rodenticides in british barn owls (1990) Environmental Pollution, 68, pp. 101-117; Ogada, D.L., The power of poison: Pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife (2014) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1322, pp. 1-20; Ogada, D.L., Keesing, F., Decline of raptors over a three-year period in Laikipia, central Kenya (2010) Journal of Raptor Research, 44, pp. 129-135; Orta, J., Marks, J.S., Garcia, E.F.J., Kirwan, G.M., Black Kite (Milvus migrans) (2015) Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, , (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). 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PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The Black Kite (Milvus migrans) has a limited distribution within Taiwan due to a dramatic population decrease during the late 20th century. Prompted by some poisoning incidents of Black Kites and other farmland birds, we hypothesized that poisoning may be an underreported yet important threat. Thus, we created a citizen-science Facebook group in October 2014 in order to receive more information about possible poisoning incidents. By September 2016, we had received reports of 4753 dead birds in 213 separate poisoning incidents in agricultural areas. The types of fields most often associated with poisoning incidents were direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa), rice that was soon to be harvested, and red beans (Vigna angularis). We tested tissues from 29 dead small birds for pesticide residues. Twenty-eight birds contained carbofuran, and one bird contained terbufos, both highly toxic pesticides. Furthermore, of seven dead Black Kites tested from 2010 to 2016, four contained carbofuran, and three contained second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. After interviewing farmers and reviewing older agricultural literature, we concluded that most of these incidents represented intentional poisonings by farmers attempting to control avian pests and rats (mostly Bandicota indica and Rattus spp.). We suggest that the Black Kites were likely the victims of inadvertent secondary poisoning incidents. The dramatic decrease of the Black Kite in the 1980s coincided with the rapid increase in the area planted with direct-seeded rice and the widespread use of carbofuran and rodenticides. The recent decreased use of these pesticides due to restrictions has coincided with the recent slow recovery of the Black Kite population. Therefore we initiated public awareness campaigns, and the Taiwanese government has adjusted some pesticide-use policies. © 2018 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

AB - The Black Kite (Milvus migrans) has a limited distribution within Taiwan due to a dramatic population decrease during the late 20th century. Prompted by some poisoning incidents of Black Kites and other farmland birds, we hypothesized that poisoning may be an underreported yet important threat. Thus, we created a citizen-science Facebook group in October 2014 in order to receive more information about possible poisoning incidents. By September 2016, we had received reports of 4753 dead birds in 213 separate poisoning incidents in agricultural areas. The types of fields most often associated with poisoning incidents were direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa), rice that was soon to be harvested, and red beans (Vigna angularis). We tested tissues from 29 dead small birds for pesticide residues. Twenty-eight birds contained carbofuran, and one bird contained terbufos, both highly toxic pesticides. Furthermore, of seven dead Black Kites tested from 2010 to 2016, four contained carbofuran, and three contained second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. After interviewing farmers and reviewing older agricultural literature, we concluded that most of these incidents represented intentional poisonings by farmers attempting to control avian pests and rats (mostly Bandicota indica and Rattus spp.). We suggest that the Black Kites were likely the victims of inadvertent secondary poisoning incidents. The dramatic decrease of the Black Kite in the 1980s coincided with the rapid increase in the area planted with direct-seeded rice and the widespread use of carbofuran and rodenticides. The recent decreased use of these pesticides due to restrictions has coincided with the recent slow recovery of the Black Kite population. Therefore we initiated public awareness campaigns, and the Taiwanese government has adjusted some pesticide-use policies. © 2018 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

KW - Black Kite

KW - carbofuran

KW - citizen science

KW - direct-seeded rice

KW - Facebook

KW - Milvus migrans

KW - pesticides

KW - rodenticides

KW - scavenger

KW - Aves

KW - Bandicota indica

KW - Milvus

KW - Oryza sativa

KW - Rattus

KW - Vigna angularis

KW - Black Kite

KW - carbofuran

KW - citizen science

KW - direct-seeded rice

KW - Facebook

KW - Milvus migrans

KW - pesticides

KW - rodenticides

KW - scavenger

U2 - 10.3356/JRR-17-40.1

DO - 10.3356/JRR-17-40.1

M3 - Article

VL - 52

SP - 326

EP - 337

JO - Journal of Raptor Research

JF - Journal of Raptor Research

SN - 0892-1016

IS - 3

ER -