Marine macroalgae are considered renewable natural resources due to their high carbohydrate content, which gives better utilization value in biorefineries and higher value conversion than first- and second-generation biomass. However, due to the diverse composition, complex structure, and rare metabolic pathways of macroalgae polysaccharides, their bioavailability needs to be improved. In recent years, enzymes and pathways related to the degradation and metabolism of macroalgae polysaccharides have been continuously developed, and new microbial fermentation platforms have emerged. Aiming at the bioutilization and transformation of macroalgae resources, this review describes the latest research results from the direction of green degradation, biorefining, and metabolic pathway design, including summarizing the the latest biorefining technology and the fermentation platform design of agarose, alginate, and other polysaccharides. This information will provide new research directions and solutions for the biotransformation and utilization of marine macroalgae.