Rapid fabrication of carbon quantum dots as multifunctional nanovehicles for dual-modal targeted imaging and chemotherapy

Sheng Hui Chiu, Gangaraju Gedda, Wubshet Mekonnen Girma, Jem Kun Chen, Yong Chien Ling, Anil Vithal Ghule, Keng-Liang Ou, Jia Yaw Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Herein, we synthesized an S, N, and Gd tri-element doped magnetofluorescent carbon quantum dots (GdNS@CQDs) within 10 min by using a one-pot microwave method. Our results showed that these magnetofluorescent GdNS@CQDs have excellent fluorescent and magnetic properties. Moreover, GdNS@CQDs exhibited high stability at physiological conditions and ionic strength. These magnetofluorescent GdNS@CQDs were conjugated with a folic acid, denoted as FA-GdNS@CQDs, for targeting dual modal fluorescence/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed the high biocompatibility and low toxicity of FA-GdNS@CQDs. FA-GdNS@CQDs enhanced the MR response as compared to that for commercial Gd-DTPA. The targeting capabilities of FA-GdNS@CQDs were confirmed in HeLa and HepG2 cells using in vitro fluorescence and MR dual modality imaging. Additionally, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was incorporated into the FA-GdNS@CQDs forming FA-GdNS@CQDs-DOX, which enables targeted drug delivery. Importantly, the prepared FA-GdNS@CQDs-DOX showed a high quantity of doxorubicin loading capacity (about 80%) and pH-sensitive drug release. The uptake into cancer cells and the intracellular location of the FA-GdNS@CQDs were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. We also successfully demonstrated in vivo fluorescence bio imaging of the FA-GdNS@CQDs, using zebrafish as an animal model. Statement of Significance In this manuscript, we reported a facial, rapid, and environmental friendly method to fabricate hetero atoms including gadolinium, nitrogen, and sulfur doped multi-functional magnetofluorescent carbon quantum dots (GdNS@CQDs) nanocomposite. These multifunctional GdNS@CQDs were conjugated with a folic acid for targeting dual modal fluorescence/magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was incorporated into the nanocomposite forming FA-GdNS@CQDs-DOX, which enables targeted drug delivery. We have developed GdNS@CQDs with integrated functions for simultaneous in vitro cell imaging, targeting, and pH-sensitive controlled drug release in HeLa cells. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated the use of this material for in vivo fluorescence imaging, using zebrafish as an animal model.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-164
Number of pages14
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2016

Keywords

  • Bio-imaging
  • Carbon quantum dots
  • Drug delivery
  • Magnetofluorescent
  • Zebrafish

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology

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  • Cite this

    Chiu, S. H., Gedda, G., Girma, W. M., Chen, J. K., Ling, Y. C., Ghule, A. V., Ou, K-L., & Chang, J. Y. (2016). Rapid fabrication of carbon quantum dots as multifunctional nanovehicles for dual-modal targeted imaging and chemotherapy. Acta Biomaterialia, 46, 151-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2016.09.027