Quantifying the level of difficulty to treat major depressive disorder with antidepressants: Treatment resistance to antidepressants evaluation scale

Tzu Yu Liu, Po Hsiu Kuo, Mong Liang Lu, Ming Chyi Huang, Chun Hsin Chen, Tzu Hua Wu, Sabrina Wang, Wei Chung Mao, Hsi Chung Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background The present study aimed to develop a new scale to evaluate the level of difficulty in treating major depressive disorder with antidepressants based on the lifetime treatment profile. Methods In addition to evaluating the difficulty of treatment with antidepressants (A subscale), the Treatment Resistance to Antidepressants Evaluation Scale (TRADES) is comprised of a subscale to account for the attributes that compromise the efficacy of treatment (B subscale). One hundred and six participants aged 18 to 65 years with remitted major depressive disorder were enrolled. Eligible cases were those with at least 2 years from disease onset until the scoring date of the TRADES (the index date), with a complete treatment record. Various psychosocial and clinical features, such as neuroticism, harm avoidance, and utilization of psychiatric services, were used to validate the TRADES. Results The mean duration of the course before and after the index date were 5.5 ± 3.5 and 3.1 ± 1.7 years, respectively. In a multiple regression analysis, the final total scores of the TRADES independently correlated with higher levels of neuroticism and harm avoidance. Total scores were also associated with a higher utilization of psychiatric outpatient and admission services before the index date. Furthermore, it is thought that total scores could predict a higher number of visits to psychiatric outpatient, emergency, and admission services following the index date. Conclusions The TRADES has acceptable validity and could help to quantify the level of treatment difficulty with antidepressants in major depressive disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0227614
Pages (from-to)e0227614
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2020


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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