Abstract

Introduction. Over 1 million mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases are reported annually worldwide and may result in cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration; depression; anxiety; and sleep problems. However, studies on long-term mTBI effects are limited. This study included 440 patients, and regular follow-ups of psychological assessments were performed for 2 years. Four questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck's anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck's depression inventory (BDI), were used to evaluate sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Results show that BAI and BDI scores considerably improved at the 6th-week, 1st-year, and 2nd-year follow-ups compared to baseline, yet these remained significantly different. In addition, anxiety and depression were prominent symptoms in a select subgroup of patients with poor initial evaluations, which improved over the 2 years. However, the ESS and PSQI scores fluctuated only mildly over the same time span. In conclusion, the mTBI patients showed a gradual improvement of anxiety and depression over the 2 years following injury. While anxiety and depression levels for mTBI patients in general did not return to premorbid status, improvements were observed. Sleep disorders persisted and were consistent with initial levels of distress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4364592
JournalBehavioural Neurology
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Brain Concussion
Psychometrics
Longitudinal Studies
Sleep
Anxiety
Depression
Equipment and Supplies
Psychology
Wounds and Injuries

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@article{f43766f0fc5f4273b7857bb56b6bf5c0,
title = "Psychometric Evaluation of Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Quality after a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study",
abstract = "Introduction. Over 1 million mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases are reported annually worldwide and may result in cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration; depression; anxiety; and sleep problems. However, studies on long-term mTBI effects are limited. This study included 440 patients, and regular follow-ups of psychological assessments were performed for 2 years. Four questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck's anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck's depression inventory (BDI), were used to evaluate sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Results show that BAI and BDI scores considerably improved at the 6th-week, 1st-year, and 2nd-year follow-ups compared to baseline, yet these remained significantly different. In addition, anxiety and depression were prominent symptoms in a select subgroup of patients with poor initial evaluations, which improved over the 2 years. However, the ESS and PSQI scores fluctuated only mildly over the same time span. In conclusion, the mTBI patients showed a gradual improvement of anxiety and depression over the 2 years following injury. While anxiety and depression levels for mTBI patients in general did not return to premorbid status, improvements were observed. Sleep disorders persisted and were consistent with initial levels of distress.",
author = "Hon-Ping Ma and Po-Shen Chen and Chung-Shun Wong and Cheng-Fu Chang and Ju-Chi Ou and Yan-Rou Tsai and Wen-Ta Chiu and Shin-Han Tsai and Kuo-Hsing Liao and Yung-Hsiao Chiang and Jia-Yi Wang and Kai-Yun Chen and Wu, {John Chung-Che}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1155/2019/4364592",
language = "English",
volume = "2019",
pages = "4364592",
journal = "Behavioural Neurology",
issn = "0953-4180",
publisher = "IOS Press",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychometric Evaluation of Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Quality after a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

T2 - A Longitudinal Study

AU - Ma, Hon-Ping

AU - Chen, Po-Shen

AU - Wong, Chung-Shun

AU - Chang, Cheng-Fu

AU - Ou, Ju-Chi

AU - Tsai, Yan-Rou

AU - Chiu, Wen-Ta

AU - Tsai, Shin-Han

AU - Liao, Kuo-Hsing

AU - Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

AU - Wang, Jia-Yi

AU - Chen, Kai-Yun

AU - Wu, John Chung-Che

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Introduction. Over 1 million mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases are reported annually worldwide and may result in cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration; depression; anxiety; and sleep problems. However, studies on long-term mTBI effects are limited. This study included 440 patients, and regular follow-ups of psychological assessments were performed for 2 years. Four questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck's anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck's depression inventory (BDI), were used to evaluate sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Results show that BAI and BDI scores considerably improved at the 6th-week, 1st-year, and 2nd-year follow-ups compared to baseline, yet these remained significantly different. In addition, anxiety and depression were prominent symptoms in a select subgroup of patients with poor initial evaluations, which improved over the 2 years. However, the ESS and PSQI scores fluctuated only mildly over the same time span. In conclusion, the mTBI patients showed a gradual improvement of anxiety and depression over the 2 years following injury. While anxiety and depression levels for mTBI patients in general did not return to premorbid status, improvements were observed. Sleep disorders persisted and were consistent with initial levels of distress.

AB - Introduction. Over 1 million mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases are reported annually worldwide and may result in cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration; depression; anxiety; and sleep problems. However, studies on long-term mTBI effects are limited. This study included 440 patients, and regular follow-ups of psychological assessments were performed for 2 years. Four questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck's anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck's depression inventory (BDI), were used to evaluate sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Results show that BAI and BDI scores considerably improved at the 6th-week, 1st-year, and 2nd-year follow-ups compared to baseline, yet these remained significantly different. In addition, anxiety and depression were prominent symptoms in a select subgroup of patients with poor initial evaluations, which improved over the 2 years. However, the ESS and PSQI scores fluctuated only mildly over the same time span. In conclusion, the mTBI patients showed a gradual improvement of anxiety and depression over the 2 years following injury. While anxiety and depression levels for mTBI patients in general did not return to premorbid status, improvements were observed. Sleep disorders persisted and were consistent with initial levels of distress.

U2 - 10.1155/2019/4364592

DO - 10.1155/2019/4364592

M3 - Article

C2 - 31110595

VL - 2019

SP - 4364592

JO - Behavioural Neurology

JF - Behavioural Neurology

SN - 0953-4180

ER -