Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice

W.-L. Hung, G. Yang, Y.-C. Wang, Y.-S. Chiou, Y.-C. Tung, M.-J. Yang, B.-N. Wang, C.-T. Ho, Y. Wang, M.-H. Pan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Theasinensins have been identified as a major group of unique catechin dimers mainly found in oolong tea and black tea. Among several types of theasinensins, theasinensin A (TSA), an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) dimer with an R-biphenyl bond, is the most abundant theasinensin prevalent in oolong tea. Previous studies have reported that TSA exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the hepatoprotective effect of TSA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. After intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for eight weeks, histological lesions in the liver tissue and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were found in mice. Conversely, oral administration of TSA relieved CCl4-induced liver injury as well as ameliorated liver functions. Our immunohistochemical staining results revealed that collagen deposition was profoundly reduced due to supplementation with TSA. In addition, we also found that hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression was suppressed through the inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Taken together, our current findings suggest that TSA may serve as a potent bioactive constituent from oolong tea that acts against liver fibrosis through the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3276-3287
Number of pages12
JournalFood and Function
Volume8
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

carbon tetrachloride
Carbon Tetrachloride
protective effect
liver
Tea
liver cirrhosis
Liver
mice
Wounds and Injuries
hepatoprotective effect
transforming growth factors
black tea
epigallocatechin
liver function
metalloproteinases
intraperitoneal injection
catechin
alanine transaminase
lesions (animal)
smooth muscle

Keywords

  • Amino acids
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Diseases
  • Phosphatases
  • Proteins
  • Alanine aminotransferase
  • Anticancer activities
  • Epigallocatechin gallate
  • Hepatic stellate cells
  • Hepatoprotective effects
  • Immunohistochemical staining
  • Intraperitoneal injections
  • Transforming growth factor beta
  • Mammals
  • benzopyran derivative
  • carbon tetrachloride
  • gelatinase B
  • phenol derivative
  • plant extract
  • theasinensin A
  • transforming growth factor beta1
  • animal
  • Camellia sinensis
  • chemically induced
  • chemistry
  • disease model
  • drug effects
  • genetics
  • human
  • liver
  • liver cirrhosis
  • male
  • metabolism
  • mouse
  • tea
  • Animals
  • Benzopyrans
  • Carbon Tetrachloride
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Liver
  • Liver Cirrhosis
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Mice
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tea
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1

Cite this

Hung, W-L., Yang, G., Wang, Y-C., Chiou, Y-S., Tung, Y-C., Yang, M-J., ... Pan, M-H. (2017). Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. Food and Function, 8(9), 3276-3287. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7fo00700k

Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. / Hung, W.-L.; Yang, G.; Wang, Y.-C.; Chiou, Y.-S.; Tung, Y.-C.; Yang, M.-J.; Wang, B.-N.; Ho, C.-T.; Wang, Y.; Pan, M.-H.

In: Food and Function, Vol. 8, No. 9, 2017, p. 3276-3287.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hung, W-L, Yang, G, Wang, Y-C, Chiou, Y-S, Tung, Y-C, Yang, M-J, Wang, B-N, Ho, C-T, Wang, Y & Pan, M-H 2017, 'Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice', Food and Function, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 3276-3287. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7fo00700k
Hung, W.-L. ; Yang, G. ; Wang, Y.-C. ; Chiou, Y.-S. ; Tung, Y.-C. ; Yang, M.-J. ; Wang, B.-N. ; Ho, C.-T. ; Wang, Y. ; Pan, M.-H. / Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. In: Food and Function. 2017 ; Vol. 8, No. 9. pp. 3276-3287.
@article{29d0790eda804534abfab99a1cb41366,
title = "Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice",
abstract = "Theasinensins have been identified as a major group of unique catechin dimers mainly found in oolong tea and black tea. Among several types of theasinensins, theasinensin A (TSA), an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) dimer with an R-biphenyl bond, is the most abundant theasinensin prevalent in oolong tea. Previous studies have reported that TSA exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the hepatoprotective effect of TSA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. After intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for eight weeks, histological lesions in the liver tissue and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were found in mice. Conversely, oral administration of TSA relieved CCl4-induced liver injury as well as ameliorated liver functions. Our immunohistochemical staining results revealed that collagen deposition was profoundly reduced due to supplementation with TSA. In addition, we also found that hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression was suppressed through the inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Taken together, our current findings suggest that TSA may serve as a potent bioactive constituent from oolong tea that acts against liver fibrosis through the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. {\circledC} 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.",
keywords = "Amino acids, Carbon tetrachloride, Diseases, Phosphatases, Proteins, Alanine aminotransferase, Anticancer activities, Epigallocatechin gallate, Hepatic stellate cells, Hepatoprotective effects, Immunohistochemical staining, Intraperitoneal injections, Transforming growth factor beta, Mammals, benzopyran derivative, carbon tetrachloride, gelatinase B, phenol derivative, plant extract, theasinensin A, transforming growth factor beta1, animal, Camellia sinensis, chemically induced, chemistry, disease model, drug effects, genetics, human, liver, liver cirrhosis, male, metabolism, mouse, tea, Animals, Benzopyrans, Carbon Tetrachloride, Disease Models, Animal, Humans, Liver, Liver Cirrhosis, Male, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9, Mice, Phenols, Plant Extracts, Tea, Transforming Growth Factor beta1",
author = "W.-L. Hung and G. Yang and Y.-C. Wang and Y.-S. Chiou and Y.-C. Tung and M.-J. Yang and B.-N. Wang and C.-T. Ho and Y. Wang and M.-H. Pan",
note = "引用次數:1 Export Date: 19 September 2018 通訊地址: Wang, Y.; Citrus Research and Education Center, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of FloridaUnited States; 電子郵件: yu.wang@ufl.edu 化學物質/CAS: carbon tetrachloride, 56-23-5; gelatinase B, 146480-36-6; Benzopyrans; Carbon Tetrachloride; Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; Phenols; Plant Extracts; Tea; theasinensin A; Transforming Growth Factor beta1 出資詳情: 105-2320-B-002-031-MY3, MOST, Ministry of Science and Technology 出資詳情: 105-2628-B-002-003-MY3, MOST, Ministry of Science and Technology 出資正文: This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (105-2320-B-002-031-MY3 and 105-2628-B-002-003-MY3) and the Taiwan Tea Research and Extension Station. 參考文獻: Bataller, R., Brenner, D.A., Liver fibrosis (2005) J. Clin. Invest., 115, pp. 209-218; Friedman, S.L., Liver fibrosis - From bench to bedside (2003) J. Hepatol., 38, pp. S38-S53; Bissell, D.M., Chronic liver injury, TGF-beta, and cancer (2001) Exp. Mol. Med., 33, pp. 179-190; Hernandez-Gea, V., Friedman, S.L., Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis (2011) Annu. Rev. Pathol.: Mech. Dis., 6, pp. 425-456; Wynn, T.A., Ramalingam, T.R., Mechanisms of fibrosis: Therapeutic translation for fibrotic disease (2012) Nat. Med., 18, pp. 1028-1040; Derynck, R., Zhang, Y.E., Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-beta family signalling (2003) Nature, 425, pp. 577-584; Meng, X.M., Nikolic-Paterson, D.J., Lan, H.Y., TGF-beta: The master regulator of fibrosis (2016) Nat. Rev. Nephrol., 12, pp. 325-338; Gressner, A.M., Weiskirchen, R., Modern pathogenetic concepts of liver fibrosis suggest stellate cells and TGF-beta as major players and therapeutic targets (2006) J. Cell. Mol. Med., 10, pp. 76-99; Liu, X.J., Hu, H., Yin, J.Q., Therapeutic strategies against TGF-beta signaling pathway in hepatic fibrosis (2006) Liver Int., 26, pp. 8-22; Domitrovic, R., Potocnjak, I., A comprehensive overview of hepatoprotective natural compounds: Mechanism of action and clinical perspectives (2016) Arch. Toxicol., 90, pp. 39-79; Liu, M., Xu, Y.W., Han, X., Yin, L.H., Xu, L., Qi, Y., Zhao, Y.Y., Peng, J.Y., Dioscin alleviates alcoholic liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-kappa B signaling pathway (2015) Sci. Rep., 5, p. 18038; Gu, L.N., Tao, X.F., Xu, Y.W., Han, X., Qi, Y., Xu, L.N., Yin, L.H., Peng, J.Y., Dioscin alleviates BDL- and DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis via Sirt1/Nrf2-mediated inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway (2016) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 292, pp. 19-29; Bhakuni, G.S., Bedi, O., Bariwal, J., Deshmukh, R., Kumar, P., Animal models of hepatotoxicity (2016) Inflammation Res., 65, pp. 13-24; Tamayo, R.P., Is Cirrhosis of the Liver Experimentally Produced by Ccl4 an Adequate Model of Human Cirrhosis (1983) Hepatology, 3, pp. 112-120; Weber, L.W.D., Boll, M., Stampfl, A., Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: Carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model (2003) Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 33, pp. 105-136; Watanabe, T., Niioka, M., Hozawa, S., Kameyama, K., Hayashi, T., Arai, M., Ishikawa, A., Okazaki, I., Gene expression of interstitial collagenase in both progressive and recovery phase of rat liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (2000) J. Hepatol., 33, pp. 224-235; Du, W.D., Zhang, Y.E., Zhai, W.R., Zhou, X.M., Dynamic changes of type I, III and IV collagen synthesis and distribution of collagen-producing cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis (1999) World J. Gastroenterol., 5, pp. 397-403; Herbst, H., Wege, T., Milani, S., Pellegrini, G., Orzechowski, H.D., Bechstein, W.O., Neuhaus, P., Schuppan, D., Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 RNA expression in rat and human liver fibrosis (1997) Am. J. Pathol., 150, pp. 1647-1659; Hashimoto, F., Nonaka, G., Nishioka, I., Tannins and Related-Compounds.69. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of B,B'-Linked Bisflavanoids, Theasinensins-D-G and Oolongtheanin from Oolong Tea (2) (1988) Chem. Pharm. Bull., 36, pp. 1676-1684; Weerawatanakorn, M., Hung, W.-L., Pan, M.-H., Li, S., Li, D., Wan, X., Ho, C.-T., Chemistry and health beneficial effects of oolong tea and theasinensins (2015) Food Sci. Hum. Wellness, 4, pp. 133-146; Hou, D.X., Masuzaki, S., Tanigawa, S., Hashimoto, F., Chen, J.H., Sogo, T., Fujii, M., Oolong Tea Theasinensins Attenuate Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Activated Mouse Macrophages: Structure-Activity Relationship and Molecular Mechanisms (2010) J. Agric. Food Chem., 58, pp. 12735-12743; Miyata, Y., Tamaru, S., Tanaka, T., Tamaya, K., Matsui, T., Nagata, Y., Tanaka, K., Theflavins and Theasinensin A Derived from Fermented Tea Have Antihyperglycemic and Hypotriacylglycerolemic Effects in KK-A(y) Mice and Sprague-Dawley Rats (2013) J. Agric. Food Chem., 61, pp. 9366-9372; Pan, M.H., Liang, Y.C., Lin-Shiau, S.Y., Zhu, N.Q., Ho, C.T., Lin, J.K., Induction of apoptosis by the oolong tea polyphenol theasinensin A through cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in human U937 cells (2000) J. Agric. 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year = "2017",
doi = "10.1039/c7fo00700k",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "3276--3287",
journal = "Food and Function",
issn = "2042-6496",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Protective effects of theasinensin A against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice

AU - Hung, W.-L.

AU - Yang, G.

AU - Wang, Y.-C.

AU - Chiou, Y.-S.

AU - Tung, Y.-C.

AU - Yang, M.-J.

AU - Wang, B.-N.

AU - Ho, C.-T.

AU - Wang, Y.

AU - Pan, M.-H.

N1 - 引用次數:1 Export Date: 19 September 2018 通訊地址: Wang, Y.; Citrus Research and Education Center, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of FloridaUnited States; 電子郵件: yu.wang@ufl.edu 化學物質/CAS: carbon tetrachloride, 56-23-5; gelatinase B, 146480-36-6; Benzopyrans; Carbon Tetrachloride; Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; Phenols; Plant Extracts; Tea; theasinensin A; Transforming Growth Factor beta1 出資詳情: 105-2320-B-002-031-MY3, MOST, Ministry of Science and Technology 出資詳情: 105-2628-B-002-003-MY3, MOST, Ministry of Science and Technology 出資正文: This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (105-2320-B-002-031-MY3 and 105-2628-B-002-003-MY3) and the Taiwan Tea Research and Extension Station. 參考文獻: Bataller, R., Brenner, D.A., Liver fibrosis (2005) J. Clin. Invest., 115, pp. 209-218; Friedman, S.L., Liver fibrosis - From bench to bedside (2003) J. Hepatol., 38, pp. S38-S53; Bissell, D.M., Chronic liver injury, TGF-beta, and cancer (2001) Exp. Mol. Med., 33, pp. 179-190; Hernandez-Gea, V., Friedman, S.L., Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis (2011) Annu. Rev. Pathol.: Mech. Dis., 6, pp. 425-456; Wynn, T.A., Ramalingam, T.R., Mechanisms of fibrosis: Therapeutic translation for fibrotic disease (2012) Nat. Med., 18, pp. 1028-1040; Derynck, R., Zhang, Y.E., Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-beta family signalling (2003) Nature, 425, pp. 577-584; Meng, X.M., Nikolic-Paterson, D.J., Lan, H.Y., TGF-beta: The master regulator of fibrosis (2016) Nat. Rev. Nephrol., 12, pp. 325-338; Gressner, A.M., Weiskirchen, R., Modern pathogenetic concepts of liver fibrosis suggest stellate cells and TGF-beta as major players and therapeutic targets (2006) J. Cell. Mol. Med., 10, pp. 76-99; Liu, X.J., Hu, H., Yin, J.Q., Therapeutic strategies against TGF-beta signaling pathway in hepatic fibrosis (2006) Liver Int., 26, pp. 8-22; Domitrovic, R., Potocnjak, I., A comprehensive overview of hepatoprotective natural compounds: Mechanism of action and clinical perspectives (2016) Arch. Toxicol., 90, pp. 39-79; Liu, M., Xu, Y.W., Han, X., Yin, L.H., Xu, L., Qi, Y., Zhao, Y.Y., Peng, J.Y., Dioscin alleviates alcoholic liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-kappa B signaling pathway (2015) Sci. Rep., 5, p. 18038; Gu, L.N., Tao, X.F., Xu, Y.W., Han, X., Qi, Y., Xu, L.N., Yin, L.H., Peng, J.Y., Dioscin alleviates BDL- and DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis via Sirt1/Nrf2-mediated inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway (2016) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 292, pp. 19-29; Bhakuni, G.S., Bedi, O., Bariwal, J., Deshmukh, R., Kumar, P., Animal models of hepatotoxicity (2016) Inflammation Res., 65, pp. 13-24; Tamayo, R.P., Is Cirrhosis of the Liver Experimentally Produced by Ccl4 an Adequate Model of Human Cirrhosis (1983) Hepatology, 3, pp. 112-120; Weber, L.W.D., Boll, M., Stampfl, A., Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: Carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model (2003) Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 33, pp. 105-136; Watanabe, T., Niioka, M., Hozawa, S., Kameyama, K., Hayashi, T., Arai, M., Ishikawa, A., Okazaki, I., Gene expression of interstitial collagenase in both progressive and recovery phase of rat liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (2000) J. Hepatol., 33, pp. 224-235; Du, W.D., Zhang, Y.E., Zhai, W.R., Zhou, X.M., Dynamic changes of type I, III and IV collagen synthesis and distribution of collagen-producing cells in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis (1999) World J. Gastroenterol., 5, pp. 397-403; Herbst, H., Wege, T., Milani, S., Pellegrini, G., Orzechowski, H.D., Bechstein, W.O., Neuhaus, P., Schuppan, D., Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 RNA expression in rat and human liver fibrosis (1997) Am. J. Pathol., 150, pp. 1647-1659; Hashimoto, F., Nonaka, G., Nishioka, I., Tannins and Related-Compounds.69. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of B,B'-Linked Bisflavanoids, Theasinensins-D-G and Oolongtheanin from Oolong Tea (2) (1988) Chem. Pharm. Bull., 36, pp. 1676-1684; Weerawatanakorn, M., Hung, W.-L., Pan, M.-H., Li, S., Li, D., Wan, X., Ho, C.-T., Chemistry and health beneficial effects of oolong tea and theasinensins (2015) Food Sci. Hum. Wellness, 4, pp. 133-146; Hou, D.X., Masuzaki, S., Tanigawa, S., Hashimoto, F., Chen, J.H., Sogo, T., Fujii, M., Oolong Tea Theasinensins Attenuate Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Activated Mouse Macrophages: Structure-Activity Relationship and Molecular Mechanisms (2010) J. Agric. Food Chem., 58, pp. 12735-12743; Miyata, Y., Tamaru, S., Tanaka, T., Tamaya, K., Matsui, T., Nagata, Y., Tanaka, K., Theflavins and Theasinensin A Derived from Fermented Tea Have Antihyperglycemic and Hypotriacylglycerolemic Effects in KK-A(y) Mice and Sprague-Dawley Rats (2013) J. Agric. Food Chem., 61, pp. 9366-9372; Pan, M.H., Liang, Y.C., Lin-Shiau, S.Y., Zhu, N.Q., Ho, C.T., Lin, J.K., Induction of apoptosis by the oolong tea polyphenol theasinensin A through cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in human U937 cells (2000) J. Agric. 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PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Theasinensins have been identified as a major group of unique catechin dimers mainly found in oolong tea and black tea. Among several types of theasinensins, theasinensin A (TSA), an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) dimer with an R-biphenyl bond, is the most abundant theasinensin prevalent in oolong tea. Previous studies have reported that TSA exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the hepatoprotective effect of TSA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. After intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for eight weeks, histological lesions in the liver tissue and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were found in mice. Conversely, oral administration of TSA relieved CCl4-induced liver injury as well as ameliorated liver functions. Our immunohistochemical staining results revealed that collagen deposition was profoundly reduced due to supplementation with TSA. In addition, we also found that hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression was suppressed through the inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Taken together, our current findings suggest that TSA may serve as a potent bioactive constituent from oolong tea that acts against liver fibrosis through the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

AB - Theasinensins have been identified as a major group of unique catechin dimers mainly found in oolong tea and black tea. Among several types of theasinensins, theasinensin A (TSA), an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) dimer with an R-biphenyl bond, is the most abundant theasinensin prevalent in oolong tea. Previous studies have reported that TSA exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the hepatoprotective effect of TSA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. After intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for eight weeks, histological lesions in the liver tissue and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were found in mice. Conversely, oral administration of TSA relieved CCl4-induced liver injury as well as ameliorated liver functions. Our immunohistochemical staining results revealed that collagen deposition was profoundly reduced due to supplementation with TSA. In addition, we also found that hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression was suppressed through the inhibition of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Taken together, our current findings suggest that TSA may serve as a potent bioactive constituent from oolong tea that acts against liver fibrosis through the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

KW - Amino acids

KW - Carbon tetrachloride

KW - Diseases

KW - Phosphatases

KW - Proteins

KW - Alanine aminotransferase

KW - Anticancer activities

KW - Epigallocatechin gallate

KW - Hepatic stellate cells

KW - Hepatoprotective effects

KW - Immunohistochemical staining

KW - Intraperitoneal injections

KW - Transforming growth factor beta

KW - Mammals

KW - benzopyran derivative

KW - carbon tetrachloride

KW - gelatinase B

KW - phenol derivative

KW - plant extract

KW - theasinensin A

KW - transforming growth factor beta1

KW - animal

KW - Camellia sinensis

KW - chemically induced

KW - chemistry

KW - disease model

KW - drug effects

KW - genetics

KW - human

KW - liver

KW - liver cirrhosis

KW - male

KW - metabolism

KW - mouse

KW - tea

KW - Animals

KW - Benzopyrans

KW - Carbon Tetrachloride

KW - Disease Models, Animal

KW - Humans

KW - Liver

KW - Liver Cirrhosis

KW - Male

KW - Matrix Metalloproteinase 9

KW - Mice

KW - Phenols

KW - Plant Extracts

KW - Tea

KW - Transforming Growth Factor beta1

U2 - 10.1039/c7fo00700k

DO - 10.1039/c7fo00700k

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 3276

EP - 3287

JO - Food and Function

JF - Food and Function

SN - 2042-6496

IS - 9

ER -