Propionibacterium acnes-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expression via ROS-dependent NF-κB and AP-1 activation in macrophages

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Abstract

Background: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory lesion as a result of cytokines production by keratinocytes and macrophages activation. However, effect of P. acnes on iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production in macrophages is still uninvestigated. Objective: This study aimed at determining the reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/prostaglandin (PG)E2 produced by macrophages upon P. acnes infection, and dissecting the mechanism of P. acnes-stimulated multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions in accordance with the elevation of NO and PGE2 production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods: Using an in vitro cell culture system, the effects of P. acnes on iNOS/NO, COX-2/PGE2, ROS production, ERK/JNK, and AP-1/NF-κB activation were examined via Western blotting, a flow cytometric analysis, and luciferase assay. In pharmacological studies, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodide (DPI), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (U0126 and SP600125) were applied to investigate the mechanism. Results: We found that P. acnes exposures increased iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 expression in RAW264.7, J774A.1, and peritoneal macrophages via a MOI-dependent manner. Increased ROS production, ERK/JNK protein phosphorylation, and elevated AP-1/NF-κB luciferase activity are identified in P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production. Additionally, hispolon but not its analogs, hispolon methylether or dehydroxyhispolon, showed significant inhibition of P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production, indicating an important role of OH at C5 for hispolon's inhibition of P. acnes-induced inflammatory events in macrophages. Conclusion: ROS-dependent stimulation of ERK, JNK, NF-κB, and AP-1 activation contributes to P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 in macrophages, and chemicals such as hispolon possessing ability to block iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production reserve potential to be further developed for treatment of the early phase of inflammation elicited by P. acnes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-131
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Dermatological Science
Volume69
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

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Propionibacterium acnes
Macrophage Activation
Macrophages
Transcription Factor AP-1
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Cyclooxygenase 2
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Reactive Oxygen Species
Nitric Oxide
Dinoprostone
Chemical activation
Proteins
Luciferases
Cysteine Dioxygenase
Infection
Anaerobic Bacteria
NADPH Oxidase
Peritoneal Macrophages
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Iodides

Keywords

  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

@article{60fb989067ff449694329c283246087d,
title = "Propionibacterium acnes-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expression via ROS-dependent NF-κB and AP-1 activation in macrophages",
abstract = "Background: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory lesion as a result of cytokines production by keratinocytes and macrophages activation. However, effect of P. acnes on iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production in macrophages is still uninvestigated. Objective: This study aimed at determining the reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/prostaglandin (PG)E2 produced by macrophages upon P. acnes infection, and dissecting the mechanism of P. acnes-stimulated multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions in accordance with the elevation of NO and PGE2 production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods: Using an in vitro cell culture system, the effects of P. acnes on iNOS/NO, COX-2/PGE2, ROS production, ERK/JNK, and AP-1/NF-κB activation were examined via Western blotting, a flow cytometric analysis, and luciferase assay. In pharmacological studies, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodide (DPI), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (U0126 and SP600125) were applied to investigate the mechanism. Results: We found that P. acnes exposures increased iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 expression in RAW264.7, J774A.1, and peritoneal macrophages via a MOI-dependent manner. Increased ROS production, ERK/JNK protein phosphorylation, and elevated AP-1/NF-κB luciferase activity are identified in P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production. Additionally, hispolon but not its analogs, hispolon methylether or dehydroxyhispolon, showed significant inhibition of P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production, indicating an important role of OH at C5 for hispolon's inhibition of P. acnes-induced inflammatory events in macrophages. Conclusion: ROS-dependent stimulation of ERK, JNK, NF-κB, and AP-1 activation contributes to P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 in macrophages, and chemicals such as hispolon possessing ability to block iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production reserve potential to be further developed for treatment of the early phase of inflammation elicited by P. acnes.",
keywords = "Cyclooxygenase 2, Inducible nitric oxide synthase, Propionibacterium acnes, Reactive oxygen species",
author = "Tsai, {Hsiou Hsin} and Lee, {Woan Rouh} and Wang, {Pai Hua} and Cheng, {Kur Ta} and Chen, {Yen Chou} and Shen, {Shing Chuan}",
year = "2013",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.jdermsci.2012.10.009",
language = "English",
volume = "69",
pages = "122--131",
journal = "Journal of Dermatological Science",
issn = "0923-1811",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Propionibacterium acnes-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expression via ROS-dependent NF-κB and AP-1 activation in macrophages

AU - Tsai, Hsiou Hsin

AU - Lee, Woan Rouh

AU - Wang, Pai Hua

AU - Cheng, Kur Ta

AU - Chen, Yen Chou

AU - Shen, Shing Chuan

PY - 2013/2

Y1 - 2013/2

N2 - Background: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory lesion as a result of cytokines production by keratinocytes and macrophages activation. However, effect of P. acnes on iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production in macrophages is still uninvestigated. Objective: This study aimed at determining the reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/prostaglandin (PG)E2 produced by macrophages upon P. acnes infection, and dissecting the mechanism of P. acnes-stimulated multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions in accordance with the elevation of NO and PGE2 production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods: Using an in vitro cell culture system, the effects of P. acnes on iNOS/NO, COX-2/PGE2, ROS production, ERK/JNK, and AP-1/NF-κB activation were examined via Western blotting, a flow cytometric analysis, and luciferase assay. In pharmacological studies, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodide (DPI), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (U0126 and SP600125) were applied to investigate the mechanism. Results: We found that P. acnes exposures increased iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 expression in RAW264.7, J774A.1, and peritoneal macrophages via a MOI-dependent manner. Increased ROS production, ERK/JNK protein phosphorylation, and elevated AP-1/NF-κB luciferase activity are identified in P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production. Additionally, hispolon but not its analogs, hispolon methylether or dehydroxyhispolon, showed significant inhibition of P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production, indicating an important role of OH at C5 for hispolon's inhibition of P. acnes-induced inflammatory events in macrophages. Conclusion: ROS-dependent stimulation of ERK, JNK, NF-κB, and AP-1 activation contributes to P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 in macrophages, and chemicals such as hispolon possessing ability to block iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production reserve potential to be further developed for treatment of the early phase of inflammation elicited by P. acnes.

AB - Background: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory lesion as a result of cytokines production by keratinocytes and macrophages activation. However, effect of P. acnes on iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production in macrophages is still uninvestigated. Objective: This study aimed at determining the reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/prostaglandin (PG)E2 produced by macrophages upon P. acnes infection, and dissecting the mechanism of P. acnes-stimulated multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions in accordance with the elevation of NO and PGE2 production by RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods: Using an in vitro cell culture system, the effects of P. acnes on iNOS/NO, COX-2/PGE2, ROS production, ERK/JNK, and AP-1/NF-κB activation were examined via Western blotting, a flow cytometric analysis, and luciferase assay. In pharmacological studies, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodide (DPI), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors (U0126 and SP600125) were applied to investigate the mechanism. Results: We found that P. acnes exposures increased iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 expression in RAW264.7, J774A.1, and peritoneal macrophages via a MOI-dependent manner. Increased ROS production, ERK/JNK protein phosphorylation, and elevated AP-1/NF-κB luciferase activity are identified in P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production. Additionally, hispolon but not its analogs, hispolon methylether or dehydroxyhispolon, showed significant inhibition of P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production, indicating an important role of OH at C5 for hispolon's inhibition of P. acnes-induced inflammatory events in macrophages. Conclusion: ROS-dependent stimulation of ERK, JNK, NF-κB, and AP-1 activation contributes to P. acnes-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 in macrophages, and chemicals such as hispolon possessing ability to block iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production reserve potential to be further developed for treatment of the early phase of inflammation elicited by P. acnes.

KW - Cyclooxygenase 2

KW - Inducible nitric oxide synthase

KW - Propionibacterium acnes

KW - Reactive oxygen species

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2012.10.009

DO - 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2012.10.009

M3 - Article

VL - 69

SP - 122

EP - 131

JO - Journal of Dermatological Science

JF - Journal of Dermatological Science

SN - 0923-1811

IS - 2

ER -