Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are known to mediate brain inflammation following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), but the precise mechanisms leading to PMN recruitment are undefined. The α-chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) has specificity for the recruitment of PMNs. In this study, we found that 8 or 12 h of hypoxia followed by 24-h reoxygenation (H8/R24 or H12/R24) induced MIP-2 secretion in cultures of enriched microglia or mixed glia, respectively. Microglia, however, could not survive longer duration (>12 h) of hypoxia. Astrocytes did not produce any significant amount of MIP-2 even though astrocytes maintained 98-99% viability following H12/R24. We also found that microglia survived the H/R treatment better (following H24) in the presence of astrocytes (mixed glial culture) than in microglia-enriched culture. Reoxygenation for prolonged periods (3 and 5 days) following H24 resulted in progressively larger increases in MIP-2 production (20- and 60-fold, respectively) in mixed glial cultures. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that the cells expressing MIP-2 in response to H/R were microglia rather than astrocytes in mixed glial cultures. Examination of MIP-2 mRNA expression showed that H/R upregulated MIP-2 gene expression. Taken together, our data suggest that microglial cells are an important source of MIP-2 production and suggest a potential injury mechanism involving brain-derived production of MIP-2 in H/R. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|
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