The risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS) has rarely been explored. To explore the association between BRONJ and pSS, we conducted a population-based propensity-score-matched cohort study using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, including pSS patients receiving antiosteoporotic therapy and patients without pSS receiving antiosteoporotic therapy. A 1:4 matched-pair cohort based on propensity score was created. The stratified Cox proportional hazards model compared the risk of BRONJ in the pSS and non-pSS groups. In the study, 23,280 pSS patients and 28,712,152 controls were enrolled. After matching, 348 patients with pSS receiving antiosteoporotic drugs and 50,145 without pSS receiving antiosteoporotic drugs were included for analysis. The risk of developing BRONJ was 1.96 times higher in pSS patients compared with non-pSS patients after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. No dose–response effect was observed in the bisphosphonate-treated pSS cohorts, documented as the cumulative defined daily doses of either < 224 or ≥ 224 (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.407, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.412–7.790; HR: 2.143, 95% CI 1.046–4.393, respectively) increased risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. In conclusion, the risk of BRONJ is significantly higher in patients with pSS compared with the general population.
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