Drug-eluting microsphere transarterial chemoembolization (DEM-TACE) has been introduced to ensure more sustained and tumor-selective drug delivery for permanent embolization of HCC. The aim of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics that related to favourable treatment response in BCLC-C HCC patients treated with DEM-TACE. In total, 64 patients with BCLC-C HCC that treated with DEM-TACE using doxorubicin-eluted microspheres were retrospectively included. The images were assessed at baseline and at 4–12 weeks follow-up after receiving DEM-TACE. Pre- and post-procedural imaging characteristics were analysed by two independent radiologists and treatment response was evaluated using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. Multivariate analysis showed that vascular lake phenomenon (OR = 5.94, p = 0.03*), and homogeneous tumor enhancement (HTE) on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during angiography (OR = 11.66, p < 0.001*) are associated with better radiological response. In contrast, residual tumor blush (OR = 0.11, p < 0.001*) is associated with worse radiological response. In conclusion, the initial tumor burden <50% (p = 0.012*) and HTE on CBCT (p = 0.040*) are good predictors for locoregional tumor control in patients with advanced HCCs, which can potentially improve patients’ outcome.
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