We previously showed that an increase in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ), together with subsequent induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by beraprost (BPS), inhibits aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation. Herein, we delineated the mechanisms of the antiproliferative effects of BPS through the induction of p21/p27. BPS concentration dependently induced the p21/p27 promoter-and consensus cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven luciferase activities, which were significantly suppressed by blocking PPARδ activation. Surprisingly, other than altering the CRE-binding protein (CREB), BPS-mediated PPARδ activation increased nuclear localization of the CREB-binding protein (CBP), a coactivator, which was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, novel functional PPAR-responsive elements (PPREs) next to CREs in the rat p21/p27 promoter regions were identified, where PPARδ interacted with CREB through CBP recruitment. BPS-mediated suppression of restenosis in mice with angioplasty was associated with p21/p27 induction. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that BPS-mediated PPARδ activation enhances transcriptional activation of p21/p27 by increasing CBP nuclear translocation, which contributes to the vasoprotective action of BPS.
- cAMP-responsive element
- cAMP-responsive element-binding protein
- cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology