Podocalyxin-like 1 promotes invadopodia formation and metastasis through activation of Rac1/Cdc42/cortactin signaling in breast cancer cells

Cheng Wei Lin, Min Siou Sun, Mei Ying Liao, Chu Hung Chung, Yi Hsuan Chi, Li Tin Chiou, John Yu, Kuo Lung Lou, Han Chung Wu

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Abstract

Metastatic disease is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Identifying biomarkers and regulatory mechanisms is important toward developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools against metastatic cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL) is overexpressed in breast tumor cells and increased in lymph node metastatic cancer. Mechanistically, we found that the expression of PODXL was associated with cell motility and invasiveness. Suppression of PODXL in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced lamellipodia formation and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin phosphorylation. PODXL knockdown reduced the formation of invadopodia, such as inhibiting the colocalization of F-actin with cortactin and suppressing phosphorylation of cortactin and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Conversely, overexpression of PODXL in MCF7 cells induced F-actin/cortactin colocalization and enhanced invadopodia formation and activation. Invadopodia activity and tumor invasion in PODXL-knockdown cells are similar to that in cortactin-knockdown cells. We further found that the DTHL motif in PODXL is crucial for regulating cortactin phosphorylation and Rac1/Cdc42 activation. Inhibition of Rac1/Cdc42 impeded PODXL-mediated cortactin activation and FAK and paxillin phosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of PODXL in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly suppressed tumor colonization in the lungs and distant metastases, similar to those in cortactin-knockdown cells. These findings show that overexpression of PODXL enhanced invadopodia formation and tumor metastasis by inducing Rac1/Cdc42/cortactin signaling network.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2425-2435
Number of pages11
JournalCarcinogenesis
Volume35
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2014

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Cortactin
Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasm Metastasis
Phosphorylation
Paxillin
Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Neoplasms
Actins
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein
podocalyxin
Podosomes
Pseudopodia
MCF-7 Cells
Cell Movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Podocalyxin-like 1 promotes invadopodia formation and metastasis through activation of Rac1/Cdc42/cortactin signaling in breast cancer cells. / Lin, Cheng Wei; Sun, Min Siou; Liao, Mei Ying; Chung, Chu Hung; Chi, Yi Hsuan; Chiou, Li Tin; Yu, John; Lou, Kuo Lung; Wu, Han Chung.

In: Carcinogenesis, Vol. 35, No. 11, 01.11.2014, p. 2425-2435.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lin, Cheng Wei ; Sun, Min Siou ; Liao, Mei Ying ; Chung, Chu Hung ; Chi, Yi Hsuan ; Chiou, Li Tin ; Yu, John ; Lou, Kuo Lung ; Wu, Han Chung. / Podocalyxin-like 1 promotes invadopodia formation and metastasis through activation of Rac1/Cdc42/cortactin signaling in breast cancer cells. In: Carcinogenesis. 2014 ; Vol. 35, No. 11. pp. 2425-2435.
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AU - Lin, Cheng Wei

AU - Sun, Min Siou

AU - Liao, Mei Ying

AU - Chung, Chu Hung

AU - Chi, Yi Hsuan

AU - Chiou, Li Tin

AU - Yu, John

AU - Lou, Kuo Lung

AU - Wu, Han Chung

PY - 2014/11/1

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N2 - Metastatic disease is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Identifying biomarkers and regulatory mechanisms is important toward developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools against metastatic cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL) is overexpressed in breast tumor cells and increased in lymph node metastatic cancer. Mechanistically, we found that the expression of PODXL was associated with cell motility and invasiveness. Suppression of PODXL in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced lamellipodia formation and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin phosphorylation. PODXL knockdown reduced the formation of invadopodia, such as inhibiting the colocalization of F-actin with cortactin and suppressing phosphorylation of cortactin and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Conversely, overexpression of PODXL in MCF7 cells induced F-actin/cortactin colocalization and enhanced invadopodia formation and activation. Invadopodia activity and tumor invasion in PODXL-knockdown cells are similar to that in cortactin-knockdown cells. We further found that the DTHL motif in PODXL is crucial for regulating cortactin phosphorylation and Rac1/Cdc42 activation. Inhibition of Rac1/Cdc42 impeded PODXL-mediated cortactin activation and FAK and paxillin phosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of PODXL in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly suppressed tumor colonization in the lungs and distant metastases, similar to those in cortactin-knockdown cells. These findings show that overexpression of PODXL enhanced invadopodia formation and tumor metastasis by inducing Rac1/Cdc42/cortactin signaling network.

AB - Metastatic disease is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Identifying biomarkers and regulatory mechanisms is important toward developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools against metastatic cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL) is overexpressed in breast tumor cells and increased in lymph node metastatic cancer. Mechanistically, we found that the expression of PODXL was associated with cell motility and invasiveness. Suppression of PODXL in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced lamellipodia formation and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin phosphorylation. PODXL knockdown reduced the formation of invadopodia, such as inhibiting the colocalization of F-actin with cortactin and suppressing phosphorylation of cortactin and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Conversely, overexpression of PODXL in MCF7 cells induced F-actin/cortactin colocalization and enhanced invadopodia formation and activation. Invadopodia activity and tumor invasion in PODXL-knockdown cells are similar to that in cortactin-knockdown cells. We further found that the DTHL motif in PODXL is crucial for regulating cortactin phosphorylation and Rac1/Cdc42 activation. Inhibition of Rac1/Cdc42 impeded PODXL-mediated cortactin activation and FAK and paxillin phosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of PODXL in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly suppressed tumor colonization in the lungs and distant metastases, similar to those in cortactin-knockdown cells. These findings show that overexpression of PODXL enhanced invadopodia formation and tumor metastasis by inducing Rac1/Cdc42/cortactin signaling network.

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