Levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau peptides in brain have been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). The current study investigated the abilities of plasma Aβ42 and total-tau (t-tau) levels in predicting cognitive decline in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Plasma Aβ42 and t-tau levels were quantified in 22 participants with amnestic MCI through immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay at baseline. The cognitive performance of participants was measured through neuropsychological tests at baseline and annual follow-up (average follow-up period of 1.5 years). The predictive value of plasma Aβ42 and t-tau for cognitive status was evaluated. We found that higher levels of Aβ42 and t-tau are associated with lower episodic verbal memory performance at baseline and cognitive decline over the course of follow-up. While Aβ42 or t-tau alone had moderate-to-high discriminatory value in the identification of future cognitive decline, the product of Aβ42 and t-tau offered greater differential value. These preliminary results might suggest that high levels of plasma Aβ42 and t-tau in amnestic MCI are associated with later cognitive decline. A further replication with a larger sample over a longer time period to validate and determine their long-term predictive value is warranted.
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