S-1, an oral pyrimidine fluoride-derived agent, is effective against various cancers. Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, was found to prolong the survival of various cancers and enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of S-1 when combined with sorafenib for refractory solid tumors. Eligible patients received escalating doses (30, 35, and 40 mg/m2 bid) of S-1 Day 1 (D1)–D14 and continuous sorafenib 400 mg bid from cycle 1 D8 every 21 days in a standard 3 + 3 study design. Primary endpoint was MTD. Thirteen patients were enrolled between May 2010 and Feb 2012. DLT developed in two (one grade 3 erythema and one prolonged grade 2 hand-foot-skin reaction) of the 6 patients at 35 mg/m2 dose level. One pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) patient achieved a durable partial response (27.9 months). Four colon cancer patients had stable disease and 3 of them had progression-free survival greater than 6 months. This study determined the recommended (MTD) S-1 dose of 30 mg/m2 bid for this regimen. This result warrants further phase II studies for advanced pNET and colon cancer to evaluate the efficacy of this combination.
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