Oxidative neurotoxicity in rat cerebral cortex neurons

Synergistic effects of H2O2 and NO on apoptosis involving activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and caspase-3

Jiz Yuh Wang, Andrew Y C Shum, Yi Jung Ho, Jia Yi Wang

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138 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oxidative stress in the brain has been increasingly associated with the development of numerous human neurological diseases. Microglia, activated upon neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation, are known to release superoxide anion (.O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO), thereby further contributing to oxidative neurotoxicity. The reaction of NO and .O2-, forming the toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), has been proposed to play a pathogenic role in neuronal injury. However, the interactions between H2O2 and NO during oxidative stress, which may promote or diminish cell death, is less clear. In this study, we explored oxidative neurotoxicity induced by H2O2 plus NO in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortex neurons. As the mechanisms may involve reactions between H2O2 and NO, we monitored the production of ONOO- and reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the experiments. Results indicated that the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP) and H2O2 by themselves elicited neuronal death in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. Sublytic concentrations of H2O2 plus SNAP were sufficient to induce neuronal apoptosis as determined by DNA laddering and fluorescent staining of apoptotic nuclei. Transient ONOO-increase was accompanied by rapid H2O2 decay and NO production, whereas ROS slowly decreased following treatment. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and the cleavage of caspase-3 were observed. Conversely, inhibition of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 significantly reduced apoptotic death induced by H2O2 plus SNAP. These data suggest that H2O2 and NO act synergistically to induce neuronal death through apoptosis in which activation of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 is involved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-519
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Research
Volume72
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Caspase 3
Cerebral Cortex
Nitric Oxide
Apoptosis
Neurons
Penicillamine
Reactive Oxygen Species
Oxidative Stress
Peroxynitrous Acid
Nitric Oxide Donors
Poisons
Wounds and Injuries
Microglia
Human Development
Superoxides
Hydrogen Peroxide
Cell Death
Staining and Labeling

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Caspase-3
  • HO
  • NO
  • p38 MAPK

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

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title = "Oxidative neurotoxicity in rat cerebral cortex neurons: Synergistic effects of H2O2 and NO on apoptosis involving activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and caspase-3",
abstract = "Oxidative stress in the brain has been increasingly associated with the development of numerous human neurological diseases. Microglia, activated upon neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation, are known to release superoxide anion (.O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO), thereby further contributing to oxidative neurotoxicity. The reaction of NO and .O2-, forming the toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), has been proposed to play a pathogenic role in neuronal injury. However, the interactions between H2O2 and NO during oxidative stress, which may promote or diminish cell death, is less clear. In this study, we explored oxidative neurotoxicity induced by H2O2 plus NO in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortex neurons. As the mechanisms may involve reactions between H2O2 and NO, we monitored the production of ONOO- and reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the experiments. Results indicated that the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP) and H2O2 by themselves elicited neuronal death in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. Sublytic concentrations of H2O2 plus SNAP were sufficient to induce neuronal apoptosis as determined by DNA laddering and fluorescent staining of apoptotic nuclei. Transient ONOO-increase was accompanied by rapid H2O2 decay and NO production, whereas ROS slowly decreased following treatment. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and the cleavage of caspase-3 were observed. Conversely, inhibition of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 significantly reduced apoptotic death induced by H2O2 plus SNAP. These data suggest that H2O2 and NO act synergistically to induce neuronal death through apoptosis in which activation of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 is involved.",
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T2 - Synergistic effects of H2O2 and NO on apoptosis involving activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and caspase-3

AU - Wang, Jiz Yuh

AU - Shum, Andrew Y C

AU - Ho, Yi Jung

AU - Wang, Jia Yi

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N2 - Oxidative stress in the brain has been increasingly associated with the development of numerous human neurological diseases. Microglia, activated upon neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation, are known to release superoxide anion (.O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO), thereby further contributing to oxidative neurotoxicity. The reaction of NO and .O2-, forming the toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), has been proposed to play a pathogenic role in neuronal injury. However, the interactions between H2O2 and NO during oxidative stress, which may promote or diminish cell death, is less clear. In this study, we explored oxidative neurotoxicity induced by H2O2 plus NO in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortex neurons. As the mechanisms may involve reactions between H2O2 and NO, we monitored the production of ONOO- and reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the experiments. Results indicated that the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP) and H2O2 by themselves elicited neuronal death in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. Sublytic concentrations of H2O2 plus SNAP were sufficient to induce neuronal apoptosis as determined by DNA laddering and fluorescent staining of apoptotic nuclei. Transient ONOO-increase was accompanied by rapid H2O2 decay and NO production, whereas ROS slowly decreased following treatment. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and the cleavage of caspase-3 were observed. Conversely, inhibition of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 significantly reduced apoptotic death induced by H2O2 plus SNAP. These data suggest that H2O2 and NO act synergistically to induce neuronal death through apoptosis in which activation of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 is involved.

AB - Oxidative stress in the brain has been increasingly associated with the development of numerous human neurological diseases. Microglia, activated upon neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation, are known to release superoxide anion (.O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO), thereby further contributing to oxidative neurotoxicity. The reaction of NO and .O2-, forming the toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), has been proposed to play a pathogenic role in neuronal injury. However, the interactions between H2O2 and NO during oxidative stress, which may promote or diminish cell death, is less clear. In this study, we explored oxidative neurotoxicity induced by H2O2 plus NO in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortex neurons. As the mechanisms may involve reactions between H2O2 and NO, we monitored the production of ONOO- and reactive oxygen species (ROS) throughout the experiments. Results indicated that the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP) and H2O2 by themselves elicited neuronal death in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. Sublytic concentrations of H2O2 plus SNAP were sufficient to induce neuronal apoptosis as determined by DNA laddering and fluorescent staining of apoptotic nuclei. Transient ONOO-increase was accompanied by rapid H2O2 decay and NO production, whereas ROS slowly decreased following treatment. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and the cleavage of caspase-3 were observed. Conversely, inhibition of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 significantly reduced apoptotic death induced by H2O2 plus SNAP. These data suggest that H2O2 and NO act synergistically to induce neuronal death through apoptosis in which activation of p38 MAPK and caspase-3 is involved.

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