Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

Szu Hsien Yu, Hui Yu Huang, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Ming Fen Hsu, Chih Yang Huang, Chien Wen Hou, Chung Yu Chen, Chung Lan Kao, Ru Ping Lee, Shin Da Lee, Chia Hua Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.Methods: Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats.Results: Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group.Conclusions: This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalJournal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 18 2012
Externally publishedYes

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skeletal muscle
mouth
Skeletal Muscle
exercise
Oxidative Stress
oxidative stress
Antioxidants
antioxidant activity
rats
Panax
Glutathione Disulfide
Dietary Supplements
Lipid Peroxidation
functional foods
Ginsenosides
glutathione
lipid peroxidation
Glutathione Reductase
Membrane Lipids
Glutathione Peroxidase

Keywords

  • Antioxidant status
  • Free radical attack
  • Ginseng
  • Ginsenoside
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • MDA
  • Oxidative damage
  • Protein carbonyl
  • Sarcolemma
  • Sports nutrition
  • Swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles. / Yu, Szu Hsien; Huang, Hui Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Hsu, Ming Fen; Huang, Chih Yang; Hou, Chien Wen; Chen, Chung Yu; Kao, Chung Lan; Lee, Ru Ping; Lee, Shin Da; Kuo, Chia Hua.

In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 9, 23, 18.05.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yu, Szu Hsien ; Huang, Hui Yu ; Korivi, Mallikarjuna ; Hsu, Ming Fen ; Huang, Chih Yang ; Hou, Chien Wen ; Chen, Chung Yu ; Kao, Chung Lan ; Lee, Ru Ping ; Lee, Shin Da ; Kuo, Chia Hua. / Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles. In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012 ; Vol. 9.
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T1 - Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

AU - Yu, Szu Hsien

AU - Huang, Hui Yu

AU - Korivi, Mallikarjuna

AU - Hsu, Ming Fen

AU - Huang, Chih Yang

AU - Hou, Chien Wen

AU - Chen, Chung Yu

AU - Kao, Chung Lan

AU - Lee, Ru Ping

AU - Lee, Shin Da

AU - Kuo, Chia Hua

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N2 - Background: Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.Methods: Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats.Results: Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group.Conclusions: This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

AB - Background: Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1) on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.Methods: Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20) and Rg1 (N = 20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats.Results: Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group.Conclusions: This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

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KW - Lipid peroxidation

KW - MDA

KW - Oxidative damage

KW - Protein carbonyl

KW - Sarcolemma

KW - Sports nutrition

KW - Swimming

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