Optimizing esthetic outcomes in graded full-thickness anterior blepharotomy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy

Jason Kian Seng Lee, Mei Xue Loi, Yi Hsuan Wei, Shu Lang Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Current outcome measures do not adequately address the esthetic aspect of the surgical outcome of anterior blepharotomy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy. This study aims to highlight the role of tarsal platform show (TPS) in optimizing the esthetic outcome of graded full-thickness anterior blepharotomy for dysthyroid upper eyelid retraction in an ethnic Chinese population. Methods: The records of patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy who underwent anterior blepharotomy for upper eyelid retraction over a period of 30 months were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Fifty-five patients (77 eyelids) with upper eyelid retraction underwent anterior blepharotomy. A statistically significant decrease in marginal reflex distance (MRD 1 ) and lagophthalmos and significant increase in TPS following anterior blepharotomy was observed. A significantly higher proportion of patients who underwent unilateral anterior blepharotomy had TPS asymmetry post-operatively as compared to the bilateral group (p < 0.001). Using logistic regression, the study found that for every 1-mm change in MRD 1 , there was approximately a 1.045-mm change in TPS. The mean percentage increase in TPS observed in our study was 303.1 ± 191% due to the low pre-operative TPS seen in Asian patients. Conclusions: To achieve the most ideal surgical outcome in graded full-thickness anterior blepharotomy, the surgeon will need to consider not only eyelid height but also the subsequent TPS change. The surgeon needs to be mindful of the relationship between MRD 1 change and TPS change to optimize esthetic outcome as well as symmetry. Special considerations need to be taken in unilateral cases as well as patients with low pre-operative TPS.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Anterior blepharotomy
  • Esthetic outcome
  • Graves’ ophthalmopathy
  • Tarsal platform show
  • Upper eyelid retraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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