Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal fungus whose numerous triterpenoids are its main bioactive constituents. Although hundreds of Ganoderma triterpenoids have been identified, Gano-derma triterpenoid glycosides, also named triterpenoid saponins, have been rarely found. Ganoderic acid A (GAA), a major Ganoderma triterpenoid, was synthetically cascaded to form GAA-15-O-β-glucopyranoside (GAA-15-G) by glycosyltransferase (BtGT_16345) from Bacillus thuringiensis GA A07 and subsequently biotransformed into a series of GAA glucosides by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (Toruzyme® 3.0 L) from Thermoanaerobacter sp. The optimal reaction conditions for the second-step biotransformation of GAA-15-G were found to be 20% of maltose; pH 5; 60◦ C. A series of GAA gluco-sides (GAA-G2, GAA-G3, and GAA-G4) could be purified with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by mass and nucleic magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analysis. The major product, GAA-15-O-[α-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-glucopyranoside] (GAA-G2), showed over 4554-fold higher aqueous solubility than GAA. The present study demonstrated that multiple Ganoderma triterpenoid saponins could be produced by sequential actions of BtGT_16345 and Toruzyme®, and the synthetic strategy that we proposed might be applied to many other Ganoderma triterpenoids to produce numerous novel Ganoderma triterpenoid saponins in the future.
- Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase
- Ganoderic acid A
- Ganoderma lucidum
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry