The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) still remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the relationship between OSA and subsequent CRS using a population-based dataset. The study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We selected 971 patients with OSA for the study cohort and 4855 patients without OSA for the comparison cohort. Each patient was tracked for 5 years to determine those who were subsequently diagnosed with CRS. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to examine the association of OSA with subsequent CRS. The results revealed that 161 (2.76%) of the total sampled patients were subsequently diagnosed with CRS. Subsequent incidences of CRS were found in 64 (6.59%) patients with OSA and 97 (2.00%) patients without OSA. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of subsequent CRS for patients with OSA was 3.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.27∼4.45) compared to those without OSA. Furthermore, the HR for CRS was similar for subjects with OSA for both genders (with an adjusted HR of 3.44 for males and 2.63 for females). We concluded that patients with OSA had a higher risk of subsequent CRS compared to patients without OSA regardless of sex.
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