Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifactorial, multisystemic and inflammatory disease. Among exptrapulmonary manifestations of COPD, weight loss associated with nutritional depletion is a frequent complication. Malnutrition in these patients is due to multiple factors including increases in resting energy expenditure, a high systemic inflammation response, tissue hypoxia. immobility, aging process and drug usage. This problem adversely affects morbidity and mortality. This article covers the prevalence, pathogenesis and consequences of malnutrition in COPD and discusses how to perform a nutritional assessment in clinical practice. And finally address the implications of nutritional supplement including anabolic stimulus and exercise which appears to be the best approach to obtaining marked functional improvement as well as exercise performance and quality of life for COPD patients.
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD
- body weight loss
- nutritional depletion
- nutrition status assessment
- nutritional supplementation