The induction of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins by chemopreventive agents protects cells from oxidizing substances capable of damaging DNA integrity and initiating carcinogenesis. Coniferyl aldehyde, a naturally occurring substance, has been found in many foods and edible plants. We and others previously demonstrated that trans-coniferylaldehyde (t-CA) has potential antimutagenic and antioxidant properties. However, the mechanism underlying its Nrf2-mediated antioxidant effect remains largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that t-CA significantly stimulated antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-driven luciferase activity in a cell model and increased the expression of ARE-dependent detoxifying/antioxidant genes and their protein products in vitro and in vivo. The detoxifying/antioxidant genes activated by t-CA, especially heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were found to be involved in its cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress and cell injuries elicited by carcinogens tert-butylhydroperoxide and arecoline. Furthermore, the t-CA-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) played a crucial role in this ARE-mediated cellular defense. Moreover, we found that p38 MAPK and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways participated in the t-CA-induced, Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective effect. Among them, p38α/MAPKAPK-2 and an atypical PKC, PK-N3, were critical for the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 axis by t-CA. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that t-CA attenuates carcinogen-induced oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 via p38α/MAPKAPK-2- and PK-N3-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, t-CA increased the level of Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant proteins in vivo, suggesting that t-CA may have potential for use in the management of carcinogenesis and meriting further investigation.
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