Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone: The integrin component

Paul J. Davis, Shaker A. Mousa, Hung Yun Lin

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53 Citations (Scopus)


Davis PJ, Mousa SA, Lin HY. Nongenomic Actions of Thyroid Hormone: The Integrin Component. Physiol Rev 101: 319-352, 2021. First published June 25, 2020; doi:10.1152/ physrev.00038.2019.-The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone analogues. The receptor is largely expressed and activated in tumor cells and rapidly dividing endothelial cells. The principal ligand for this receptor is L-thyroxine (T4), usually regarded only as a prohormone for 3,5,30-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the hormone analogue that expresses thyroid hormone in the cell nucleus via nuclear receptors that are unrelated structurally to integrin αvβ3. At the integrin receptor for thyroid hormone, T4 regulates cancer and endothelial cell division, tumor cell defense pathways (such as anti-apoptosis), and angiogenesis and supports metastasis, radioresistance, and chemoresistance. The molecular mechanisms involve signal transduction via mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, differential expression of multiple genes related to the listed cell processes, and regulation of activities of other cell surface proteins, such as vascular growth factor receptors. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) is derived from T4 and competes with binding of T4 to the integrin. In the absence of T4, tetrac and chemically modified tetrac also have anticancer effects that culminate in altered gene transcription. Tumor xenografts are arrested by unmodified and chemically modified tetrac. The receptor requires further characterization in terms of contributions to nonmalignant cells, such as platelets and phagocytes. The integrin αvβ3 receptor for thyroid hormone offers a large panel of cellular actions that are relevant to cancer biology and that may be regulated by tetrac derivatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-352
Number of pages34
JournalPhysiological Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • 3,5,30-triiodo-l-thyronine (t3)
  • Angiogenesis
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell cycle
  • Integrin avb 3
  • L-thyroxine (t4)
  • Protein trafficking
  • Signal transduction pathways
  • Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology (medical)


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