Neuropathologic correlates for diffusion tensor imaging in postinfectious encephalopathy

Chin I. Chen, Soe Mar, Stephanie Brown, Sheng Kwei Song, Tammie L S Benzinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis are 2 rare types of acute postinfectious encephalopathy in children. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple symmetric lesions in the thalami, putamena, cerebral and cerebellar white matter, and brainstem. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated demyelinating central nervous system disorder that predominantly affects the white matter. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to measuring water diffusion in the central nervous system in human and animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that by using an analytical approach to directional diffusivity-derived parameters, the axial diffusivity and the radial diffusivity, one can assess the extent of axonal or myelin injury in the central nervous system white matter. We applied directional diffusivity to acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and control subjects correlating with neuropathology findings. In acute necrotizing encephalopathy, axonal injury without demyelination, noted on biopsy samples of brain tissue, was suggested by a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient, unchanged fractional anisotropy, and decreased axial and radial diffusivity. In acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, an increased apparent diffusion coefficient, decreased fractional anisotropy, unchanged axial diffusivity, and markedly increased radial diffusivity compatible with active inflammatory demyelination were noted, consistent with tissue biopsy sample neuropathology. In conclusion, diffusion tensor parameters can potentially depict more microstructural changes than conventional magnetic resonance imaging in postinfectious encephalopathy in children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-393
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Neurology
Volume44
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2011

Fingerprint

Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Brain Diseases
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
Anisotropy
Demyelinating Diseases
Central Nervous System
Biopsy
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Central Nervous System Diseases
Wounds and Injuries
Myelin Sheath
Thalamus
Brain Stem
Animal Models
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Water
Brain
White Matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Neurology

Cite this

Neuropathologic correlates for diffusion tensor imaging in postinfectious encephalopathy. / Chen, Chin I.; Mar, Soe; Brown, Stephanie; Song, Sheng Kwei; Benzinger, Tammie L S.

In: Pediatric Neurology, Vol. 44, No. 5, 05.2011, p. 389-393.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Chin I. ; Mar, Soe ; Brown, Stephanie ; Song, Sheng Kwei ; Benzinger, Tammie L S. / Neuropathologic correlates for diffusion tensor imaging in postinfectious encephalopathy. In: Pediatric Neurology. 2011 ; Vol. 44, No. 5. pp. 389-393.
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