Natural product myricetin is a pan-KDM4 inhibitor which with poly lactic-co-glycolic acid formulation effectively targets castration-resistant prostate cancer

Jai Shin Liu, Wei Kai Fang, Shan Min Yang, Meng Chen Wu, Tsan Jan Chen, Chih Ming Chen, Tung Yueh Lin, Kai Lun Liu, Chien Ming Wu, Yun Ching Chen, Chih Pin Chuu, Ling Yu Wang, Hsing Pang Hsieh, Hsing Jien Kung, Wen Ching Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with sustained androgen receptor (AR) signaling remains a critical clinical challenge, despite androgen depletion therapy. The Jumonji C-containing histone lysine demethylase family 4 (KDM4) members, KDM4A‒KDM4C, serve as critical coactivators of AR to promote tumor growth in prostate cancer and are candidate therapeutic targets to overcome AR mutations/alterations-mediated resistance in CRPC. Methods: In this study, using a structure-based approach, we identified a natural product, myricetin, able to block the demethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation by KDM4 members and evaluated its effects on CRPC. A structure-based screening was employed to search for a natural product that inhibited KDM4B. Inhibition kinetics of myricetin was determined. The cytotoxic effect of myricetin on various prostate cancer cells was evaluated. The combined effect of myricetin with enzalutamide, a second-generation AR inhibitor toward C4-2B, a CRPC cell line, was assessed. To improve bioavailability, myricetin encapsulated by poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), the US food and drug administration (FDA)-approved material as drug carriers, was synthesized and its antitumor activity alone or with enzalutamide was evaluated using in vivo C4-2B xenografts. Results: Myricetin was identified as a potent α-ketoglutarate-type inhibitor that blocks the demethylation activity by KDM4s and significantly reduced the proliferation of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent CRPC (CWR22Rv1 and C4-2B). A synergistic cytotoxic effect toward C4-2B was detected for the combination of myricetin and enzalutamide. PLGA-myricetin, enzalutamide, and the combined treatment showed significantly greater antitumor activity than that of the control group in the C4-2B xenograft model. Tumor growth was significantly lower for the combination treatment than for enzalutamide or myricetin treatment alone. Conclusions: These results suggest that myricetin is a pan-KDM4 inhibitor and exhibited potent cell cytotoxicity toward CRPC cells. Importantly, the combination of PLGA-encapsulated myricetin with enzalutamide is potentially effective for CRPC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number29
JournalJournal of Biomedical Science
Volume29
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • Enzalutamide
  • Histone lysine demethylase family 4 (KDM4)
  • Myricetin
  • Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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