Myocardial infarction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to poor inherent regeneration of the adult mammalian myocardium and challenges with effective drug delivery, there has been little progress in regenerative therapies. Nanocarriers, including liposomes, nanoparticles, and exosomes, offer many potential advantages for the therapy of myocardial infarction, including improved delivery, retention, and prolonged activity of therapeutics. However, there are many challenges that have prevented the widespread clinical use of these technologies. This review aims to summarize significant principles and developments in the field, with a focus on nanocarriers using ligand-based or cell mimicry-based targeting. Lastly, a discussion of limitations and potential future direction is provided.