This study examined the characteristics of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis associated with convulsions in children and its molecular epidemiology. From July 2006 through December 2015, NoV infection was confirmed by the genome detection using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral genotyping with strain validation was achieved using sequence analyses with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool genome identification. The patients' clinical features were assessed retrospectively, focusing on convulsive disorders. The diagnosis of encephalitis followed the International Encephalitis Consortium. Seizures occurred in 52 (20.9%) of 249 NoV infections. GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b (n = 22, 42.3%) and GII.4 Sydney 2012 (n = 10, 19.2%) were major variants correlated with convulsions. Patient with convulsions tend to have GII.4 genotype infection (P <.001), short vomiting (≤2 days) (P <.001), and no fever (P =.002). Compared to GII.4 Den_Haag_2006b, the GII.4 Sydney 2012-associated convulsions had similar manifestations except without significant winter preponderance (P =.049). The NoV infection with convulsions had less febrile course, specific genotype (GII.4) infections, and with shorter symptom of vomiting. Continuous surveillance is important for uncommon disease associated with emerging NoV strain infections. The prevention of NoV diseases requires the development of vaccines targeting highly virulent variants.
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