Metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects associated with treatment with antipsychotic drugs

Shen Chieh Chang, Mong Liang Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe mental illnesses. Antipsychotic medications are the drug of the choice for patients with schizophrenia. However, some antipsychotic drugs have a high tendency to cause weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, therefore increasing the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. These findings have led to an increased interest in looking into the relationships between schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs, metabolic dysregulation, and cardiovascular disease. Although some neurotransmitter receptor-binding affinities are correlated with specific metabolic abnormalities, the exact mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced adverse metabolic effects are still unclear. The receptor affinity of antipsychotic drugs for histamine H 1, serotonin 5-HT 2C and 5-HT 1A, muscarinic M 3, dopamine D 2, and adrenergic receptors might be involved in causing metabolic dysregulation. Low-potency first-generation antipsychotic drugs are associated with a higher potential to cause weight gain and metabolic disturbance than are high-potency first-generation antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs carry different risks of causing weight gain and metabolic dysregulation: clozapine and olanzapine have the highest risk; quetiapine and risperidone a moderate risk; and aripiprazole, amisulpride, and ziprasidone the lowest risk. The psychiatric literature has recommended follow-up for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, but many antipsychotic-treated patients have not received the recommended regular monitoring for these risk factors. Psychiatrists need to educate and motivate this group of patients to make healthy lifestyle changes. If these lifestyle changes fail, these patients need to receive drug interventions. Adding medications (such as metformin, topiramate, and amantadine) or switching to another antipsychotic drug should be considered to decrease the risk of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. In conclusion, this review is intended to describe the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular effects related to antipsychotic medications, to explore their possible underlying mechanisms, and to recommend how to monitor and manage those iatrogenic side effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-107
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine(Taiwan)
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012

Fingerprint

Antipsychotic Agents
Weight Gain
Therapeutics
Serotonin
Cardiovascular Diseases
Metabolic Diseases
olanzapine
Psychiatry
Schizophrenia
Amantadine
Neurotransmitter Receptor
Risperidone
Clozapine
Metformin
Adrenergic Receptors
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Cholinergic Agents
Histamine
Life Style
Dopamine

Keywords

  • Adverse effect
  • Antipsychotic drugs
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects associated with treatment with antipsychotic drugs. / Chang, Shen Chieh; Lu, Mong Liang.

In: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine(Taiwan), Vol. 4, No. 2, 04.2012, p. 103-107.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f09a139024e649e8a61d26ba51614be5,
title = "Metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects associated with treatment with antipsychotic drugs",
abstract = "Metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe mental illnesses. Antipsychotic medications are the drug of the choice for patients with schizophrenia. However, some antipsychotic drugs have a high tendency to cause weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, therefore increasing the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. These findings have led to an increased interest in looking into the relationships between schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs, metabolic dysregulation, and cardiovascular disease. Although some neurotransmitter receptor-binding affinities are correlated with specific metabolic abnormalities, the exact mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced adverse metabolic effects are still unclear. The receptor affinity of antipsychotic drugs for histamine H 1, serotonin 5-HT 2C and 5-HT 1A, muscarinic M 3, dopamine D 2, and adrenergic receptors might be involved in causing metabolic dysregulation. Low-potency first-generation antipsychotic drugs are associated with a higher potential to cause weight gain and metabolic disturbance than are high-potency first-generation antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs carry different risks of causing weight gain and metabolic dysregulation: clozapine and olanzapine have the highest risk; quetiapine and risperidone a moderate risk; and aripiprazole, amisulpride, and ziprasidone the lowest risk. The psychiatric literature has recommended follow-up for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, but many antipsychotic-treated patients have not received the recommended regular monitoring for these risk factors. Psychiatrists need to educate and motivate this group of patients to make healthy lifestyle changes. If these lifestyle changes fail, these patients need to receive drug interventions. Adding medications (such as metformin, topiramate, and amantadine) or switching to another antipsychotic drug should be considered to decrease the risk of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. In conclusion, this review is intended to describe the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular effects related to antipsychotic medications, to explore their possible underlying mechanisms, and to recommend how to monitor and manage those iatrogenic side effects.",
keywords = "Adverse effect, Antipsychotic drugs, Cardiovascular disease, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity",
author = "Chang, {Shen Chieh} and Lu, {Mong Liang}",
year = "2012",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.jecm.2012.01.007",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
pages = "103--107",
journal = "Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine",
issn = "1878-3317",
publisher = "Elsevier Taiwan LLC",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects associated with treatment with antipsychotic drugs

AU - Chang, Shen Chieh

AU - Lu, Mong Liang

PY - 2012/4

Y1 - 2012/4

N2 - Metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe mental illnesses. Antipsychotic medications are the drug of the choice for patients with schizophrenia. However, some antipsychotic drugs have a high tendency to cause weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, therefore increasing the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. These findings have led to an increased interest in looking into the relationships between schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs, metabolic dysregulation, and cardiovascular disease. Although some neurotransmitter receptor-binding affinities are correlated with specific metabolic abnormalities, the exact mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced adverse metabolic effects are still unclear. The receptor affinity of antipsychotic drugs for histamine H 1, serotonin 5-HT 2C and 5-HT 1A, muscarinic M 3, dopamine D 2, and adrenergic receptors might be involved in causing metabolic dysregulation. Low-potency first-generation antipsychotic drugs are associated with a higher potential to cause weight gain and metabolic disturbance than are high-potency first-generation antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs carry different risks of causing weight gain and metabolic dysregulation: clozapine and olanzapine have the highest risk; quetiapine and risperidone a moderate risk; and aripiprazole, amisulpride, and ziprasidone the lowest risk. The psychiatric literature has recommended follow-up for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, but many antipsychotic-treated patients have not received the recommended regular monitoring for these risk factors. Psychiatrists need to educate and motivate this group of patients to make healthy lifestyle changes. If these lifestyle changes fail, these patients need to receive drug interventions. Adding medications (such as metformin, topiramate, and amantadine) or switching to another antipsychotic drug should be considered to decrease the risk of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. In conclusion, this review is intended to describe the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular effects related to antipsychotic medications, to explore their possible underlying mechanisms, and to recommend how to monitor and manage those iatrogenic side effects.

AB - Metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe mental illnesses. Antipsychotic medications are the drug of the choice for patients with schizophrenia. However, some antipsychotic drugs have a high tendency to cause weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, therefore increasing the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. These findings have led to an increased interest in looking into the relationships between schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs, metabolic dysregulation, and cardiovascular disease. Although some neurotransmitter receptor-binding affinities are correlated with specific metabolic abnormalities, the exact mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced adverse metabolic effects are still unclear. The receptor affinity of antipsychotic drugs for histamine H 1, serotonin 5-HT 2C and 5-HT 1A, muscarinic M 3, dopamine D 2, and adrenergic receptors might be involved in causing metabolic dysregulation. Low-potency first-generation antipsychotic drugs are associated with a higher potential to cause weight gain and metabolic disturbance than are high-potency first-generation antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs carry different risks of causing weight gain and metabolic dysregulation: clozapine and olanzapine have the highest risk; quetiapine and risperidone a moderate risk; and aripiprazole, amisulpride, and ziprasidone the lowest risk. The psychiatric literature has recommended follow-up for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, but many antipsychotic-treated patients have not received the recommended regular monitoring for these risk factors. Psychiatrists need to educate and motivate this group of patients to make healthy lifestyle changes. If these lifestyle changes fail, these patients need to receive drug interventions. Adding medications (such as metformin, topiramate, and amantadine) or switching to another antipsychotic drug should be considered to decrease the risk of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. In conclusion, this review is intended to describe the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular effects related to antipsychotic medications, to explore their possible underlying mechanisms, and to recommend how to monitor and manage those iatrogenic side effects.

KW - Adverse effect

KW - Antipsychotic drugs

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Metabolic syndrome

KW - Obesity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84862786792&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84862786792&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jecm.2012.01.007

DO - 10.1016/j.jecm.2012.01.007

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84862786792

VL - 4

SP - 103

EP - 107

JO - Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

JF - Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

SN - 1878-3317

IS - 2

ER -