Abstract

Background: Testicular torsion is an urological emergency that may lead to infertility due to ischemic injury. Promptly surgical correction by orchiopexy is the only way to avoid infertility and no effective treatment for restoration of spermatogenesis. We previously reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), through local injection upon testicular torsion-detorsion, restored the spermatogenesis without differentiation into sperm. In this study, molecular mechanisms of MSCs in regulating germ cell activity induced by testicular torsion-detorsion were investigated. Methods: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats 6-8 weeks old received left testis 720° torsion for 3 h followed by detorsion with or without MSCs. Right inguinal skin incision without testicular torsion served as control. MSCs with 3 × 104 cells were locally injected into left testis 30 min before detorsion. Three days after the surgery, orchiectomy was executed and the testis, epididymis, and sperm were separated to each other. Functional assessments on sperm included counting sperm amount and sperm motility, staining F-actin, and quantifying adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. The hallmarks of glycogenesis and glycolysis in each tissue segment were measured by Western blot. Results: Testicular torsion-detorsion significantly decreased the amount of sperm, inhibited the motility, declined the F-actin expression, and reduced the content of ATP in sperm. Local injection of MSCs improved sperm function, particularly in sperm motility. With MSCs, ATP content and F-actin were preserved after testicular torsion-detorsion. MSCs significantly reversed the imbalance of glycolysis in sperm and testis induced by testicular torsion-detorsion, as evidenced by increasing the expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic, activating Akt, and increasing glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which led to the increase in glycolysis cascades and ATP production. Human stem cell factor contributed the activation of Akt/GSK3 axis when sperm suffered from testicular torsion-detorsion-induced germ cell injury. Conclusions: Local injection of MSCs into a testis damaged by testicular torsion-detorsion restores sperm function mainly through the improvement of sperm motility and energy. MSCs reversed the imbalance of glycogenesis and glycolysis in sperm by regulating Akt/GSK3 axis. Thus, MSCs may potentially rescue torsion-detorsion-induced infertility via local injection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number270
JournalStem Cell Research and Therapy
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 24 2019

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Spermatic Cord Torsion
Sperm Motility
Stem cells
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Metabolism
Torsional stress
Spermatozoa
Glucose
Wounds and Injuries
Testis
Glycolysis
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Adenosine Triphosphate
Infertility
Actins
Injections
Spermatogenesis
Germ Cells
Functional assessment
Orchiopexy

Keywords

  • Glycolysis
  • Infertility
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Sperm motility
  • Testicular torsion-detorsion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

@article{06c9d00e529c45e5a140679f635d775f,
title = "Mesenchymal stem cells restore the sperm motility from testicular torsion-detorsion injury by regulation of glucose metabolism in sperm",
abstract = "Background: Testicular torsion is an urological emergency that may lead to infertility due to ischemic injury. Promptly surgical correction by orchiopexy is the only way to avoid infertility and no effective treatment for restoration of spermatogenesis. We previously reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), through local injection upon testicular torsion-detorsion, restored the spermatogenesis without differentiation into sperm. In this study, molecular mechanisms of MSCs in regulating germ cell activity induced by testicular torsion-detorsion were investigated. Methods: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats 6-8 weeks old received left testis 720° torsion for 3 h followed by detorsion with or without MSCs. Right inguinal skin incision without testicular torsion served as control. MSCs with 3 × 104 cells were locally injected into left testis 30 min before detorsion. Three days after the surgery, orchiectomy was executed and the testis, epididymis, and sperm were separated to each other. Functional assessments on sperm included counting sperm amount and sperm motility, staining F-actin, and quantifying adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. The hallmarks of glycogenesis and glycolysis in each tissue segment were measured by Western blot. Results: Testicular torsion-detorsion significantly decreased the amount of sperm, inhibited the motility, declined the F-actin expression, and reduced the content of ATP in sperm. Local injection of MSCs improved sperm function, particularly in sperm motility. With MSCs, ATP content and F-actin were preserved after testicular torsion-detorsion. MSCs significantly reversed the imbalance of glycolysis in sperm and testis induced by testicular torsion-detorsion, as evidenced by increasing the expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic, activating Akt, and increasing glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which led to the increase in glycolysis cascades and ATP production. Human stem cell factor contributed the activation of Akt/GSK3 axis when sperm suffered from testicular torsion-detorsion-induced germ cell injury. Conclusions: Local injection of MSCs into a testis damaged by testicular torsion-detorsion restores sperm function mainly through the improvement of sperm motility and energy. MSCs reversed the imbalance of glycogenesis and glycolysis in sperm by regulating Akt/GSK3 axis. Thus, MSCs may potentially rescue torsion-detorsion-induced infertility via local injection.",
keywords = "Glycolysis, Infertility, Mesenchymal stem cells, Sperm motility, Testicular torsion-detorsion",
author = "Hsiao, {Chi Hao} and Ji, {Andrea Tung Qian} and Chang, {Chih Cheng} and Chien, {Ming Hsien} and Lee, {Liang Ming} and Ho, {Jennifer Hui Chun}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "24",
doi = "10.1186/s13287-019-1351-5",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Stem Cell Research and Therapy",
issn = "1757-6512",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mesenchymal stem cells restore the sperm motility from testicular torsion-detorsion injury by regulation of glucose metabolism in sperm

AU - Hsiao, Chi Hao

AU - Ji, Andrea Tung Qian

AU - Chang, Chih Cheng

AU - Chien, Ming Hsien

AU - Lee, Liang Ming

AU - Ho, Jennifer Hui Chun

PY - 2019/8/24

Y1 - 2019/8/24

N2 - Background: Testicular torsion is an urological emergency that may lead to infertility due to ischemic injury. Promptly surgical correction by orchiopexy is the only way to avoid infertility and no effective treatment for restoration of spermatogenesis. We previously reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), through local injection upon testicular torsion-detorsion, restored the spermatogenesis without differentiation into sperm. In this study, molecular mechanisms of MSCs in regulating germ cell activity induced by testicular torsion-detorsion were investigated. Methods: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats 6-8 weeks old received left testis 720° torsion for 3 h followed by detorsion with or without MSCs. Right inguinal skin incision without testicular torsion served as control. MSCs with 3 × 104 cells were locally injected into left testis 30 min before detorsion. Three days after the surgery, orchiectomy was executed and the testis, epididymis, and sperm were separated to each other. Functional assessments on sperm included counting sperm amount and sperm motility, staining F-actin, and quantifying adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. The hallmarks of glycogenesis and glycolysis in each tissue segment were measured by Western blot. Results: Testicular torsion-detorsion significantly decreased the amount of sperm, inhibited the motility, declined the F-actin expression, and reduced the content of ATP in sperm. Local injection of MSCs improved sperm function, particularly in sperm motility. With MSCs, ATP content and F-actin were preserved after testicular torsion-detorsion. MSCs significantly reversed the imbalance of glycolysis in sperm and testis induced by testicular torsion-detorsion, as evidenced by increasing the expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic, activating Akt, and increasing glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which led to the increase in glycolysis cascades and ATP production. Human stem cell factor contributed the activation of Akt/GSK3 axis when sperm suffered from testicular torsion-detorsion-induced germ cell injury. Conclusions: Local injection of MSCs into a testis damaged by testicular torsion-detorsion restores sperm function mainly through the improvement of sperm motility and energy. MSCs reversed the imbalance of glycogenesis and glycolysis in sperm by regulating Akt/GSK3 axis. Thus, MSCs may potentially rescue torsion-detorsion-induced infertility via local injection.

AB - Background: Testicular torsion is an urological emergency that may lead to infertility due to ischemic injury. Promptly surgical correction by orchiopexy is the only way to avoid infertility and no effective treatment for restoration of spermatogenesis. We previously reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), through local injection upon testicular torsion-detorsion, restored the spermatogenesis without differentiation into sperm. In this study, molecular mechanisms of MSCs in regulating germ cell activity induced by testicular torsion-detorsion were investigated. Methods: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats 6-8 weeks old received left testis 720° torsion for 3 h followed by detorsion with or without MSCs. Right inguinal skin incision without testicular torsion served as control. MSCs with 3 × 104 cells were locally injected into left testis 30 min before detorsion. Three days after the surgery, orchiectomy was executed and the testis, epididymis, and sperm were separated to each other. Functional assessments on sperm included counting sperm amount and sperm motility, staining F-actin, and quantifying adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. The hallmarks of glycogenesis and glycolysis in each tissue segment were measured by Western blot. Results: Testicular torsion-detorsion significantly decreased the amount of sperm, inhibited the motility, declined the F-actin expression, and reduced the content of ATP in sperm. Local injection of MSCs improved sperm function, particularly in sperm motility. With MSCs, ATP content and F-actin were preserved after testicular torsion-detorsion. MSCs significantly reversed the imbalance of glycolysis in sperm and testis induced by testicular torsion-detorsion, as evidenced by increasing the expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic, activating Akt, and increasing glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which led to the increase in glycolysis cascades and ATP production. Human stem cell factor contributed the activation of Akt/GSK3 axis when sperm suffered from testicular torsion-detorsion-induced germ cell injury. Conclusions: Local injection of MSCs into a testis damaged by testicular torsion-detorsion restores sperm function mainly through the improvement of sperm motility and energy. MSCs reversed the imbalance of glycogenesis and glycolysis in sperm by regulating Akt/GSK3 axis. Thus, MSCs may potentially rescue torsion-detorsion-induced infertility via local injection.

KW - Glycolysis

KW - Infertility

KW - Mesenchymal stem cells

KW - Sperm motility

KW - Testicular torsion-detorsion

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U2 - 10.1186/s13287-019-1351-5

DO - 10.1186/s13287-019-1351-5

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