Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is rapidly produced under proinflammatory stimuli, thereby feeding back to downregulate excessive inflammation. In this study, we used the stable, inducible expressions of wild-type (WT) MCPIP1 and an MCPIP1-D141N mutant in T-REx-293 cells by means of a tetracycline on (Tet-on) system. We found that WT MCPIP1 but not MCPIP1-D141N mutant expression dramatically increased apoptosis, caspase-3,-7,-8, and-9 activation, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in TNF-α-treated cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, and the caspase-1 inhibitor, z-YVAD-fmk, but not the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly reversed apoptosis and caspase activation in TNF-α/MCPIP1-treated cells. Surprisingly, MCPIP1 itself was also cleaved, and the cleavage was suppressed by treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor and caspase-1 inhibitor. Moreover, MCPIP1 was found to contain a caspase-1/-4 consensus recognition sequence located in residues 234~238. As expected, the WT MCPIP1 but not the MCPIP1-D141N mutant suppressed NF-κB activation, as evidenced by inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK) phosphorylation and IκB degradation using Western blotting, IKK activity using in vitro kinase activity, and NF-κB translocation to nuclei using an immunofluorescence assay. Interestingly, MCPIP1 also significantly inhibited importin α3 and importin α4 expressions, which are major nuclear transporter receptors for NF-κB. Inhibition of NF-κB activation further downregulated expression of the caspase-8 inhibitor, cFLIP. In summary, the results suggest that MCPIP1 could enhance the TNF-α-induced apoptotic pathway through decreasing NF-κB activation and cFLIP expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)