Abstract

Androgen deprivation therapy has constituted the main treatment for prostate cancer; however, tumors ultimately progress to hormone-independent prostate cancer (HIPC), and suitable therapeutic strategies for HIPC are not available. Maspin, which is also known as mammary serine protease inhibitor, has been suggested to be a valuable focus for targeted cancer therapy. Specifically, maspin has been shown to be upregulated after androgen ablation therapy. Gemcitabine is used as a first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, but its disease control rate is low. Furthermore, the role of maspin in the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine for HIPC remains unclear. The expression levels of maspin in PC-3 and DU145 cells were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Furthermore, the expression of maspin was silenced using shRNA technology to generate maspin-KD cells. The cytotoxicity of gemcitabine to prostate cancer cells was assessed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-3,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, whereas flow cytometry analyses and annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays were used to assess the ability of gemcitabine to induce apoptosis in maspin-KD and control cells. Additionally, the expression patterns of anti-apoptosis proteins (myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)) and pro-apoptosis proteins (Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)) were determined by Western blotting. In this study, PC-3 cells were more resistant to gemcitabine administration than DU145 cells, which correlated with the higher expression levels of maspin observed in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, maspin knockdown enhanced gemcitabine-induced cell death, as evidenced by the increased number of apoptotic cells. Gemcitabine treatment upregulated the levels of anti-apoptosis proteins (Mcl-2 and Bcl-2) in both scrambled control and maspin-KD cells; however, the fold changes in Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 expression were larger in gemcitabine-treated scrambled control cells than in maspin-KD cells. Finally, our findings indicate for the first time that maspin may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine in HIPC. Our results demonstrate that maspin knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to gemcitabine. Therefore, combining gemcitabine with a drug that targets maspin might constitute a valuable strategy for prostate cancer treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4075-4082
JournalTumor Biology
Volume37
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016

Fingerprint

gemcitabine
Prostatic Neoplasms
Hormones
B-Cell Lymphoma
Apoptosis
Androgens
Myeloid Leukemia
Myeloid Cells
SERPIN-B5
Therapeutics
Western Blotting

Keywords

  • Gemcitabine
  • HIPC
  • Maspin
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Maspin mediates the gemcitabine sensitivity of hormone-independent prostate cancer. / Huang, Chien Yu; Chang, Yu Jia; Luo, Sheng Dean; Uyanga, Batzorig; Lin, Feng Yen; Tai, Cheng Jeng; Huang, Ming Te.

In: Tumor Biology, Vol. 37, No. 3, 01.03.2016, p. 4075-4082.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{76720e34f1da41e2848ed36c86b39444,
title = "Maspin mediates the gemcitabine sensitivity of hormone-independent prostate cancer",
abstract = "Androgen deprivation therapy has constituted the main treatment for prostate cancer; however, tumors ultimately progress to hormone-independent prostate cancer (HIPC), and suitable therapeutic strategies for HIPC are not available. Maspin, which is also known as mammary serine protease inhibitor, has been suggested to be a valuable focus for targeted cancer therapy. Specifically, maspin has been shown to be upregulated after androgen ablation therapy. Gemcitabine is used as a first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, but its disease control rate is low. Furthermore, the role of maspin in the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine for HIPC remains unclear. The expression levels of maspin in PC-3 and DU145 cells were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Furthermore, the expression of maspin was silenced using shRNA technology to generate maspin-KD cells. The cytotoxicity of gemcitabine to prostate cancer cells was assessed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-3,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, whereas flow cytometry analyses and annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays were used to assess the ability of gemcitabine to induce apoptosis in maspin-KD and control cells. Additionally, the expression patterns of anti-apoptosis proteins (myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)) and pro-apoptosis proteins (Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)) were determined by Western blotting. In this study, PC-3 cells were more resistant to gemcitabine administration than DU145 cells, which correlated with the higher expression levels of maspin observed in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, maspin knockdown enhanced gemcitabine-induced cell death, as evidenced by the increased number of apoptotic cells. Gemcitabine treatment upregulated the levels of anti-apoptosis proteins (Mcl-2 and Bcl-2) in both scrambled control and maspin-KD cells; however, the fold changes in Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 expression were larger in gemcitabine-treated scrambled control cells than in maspin-KD cells. Finally, our findings indicate for the first time that maspin may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine in HIPC. Our results demonstrate that maspin knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to gemcitabine. Therefore, combining gemcitabine with a drug that targets maspin might constitute a valuable strategy for prostate cancer treatment.",
keywords = "Gemcitabine, HIPC, Maspin, Prostate cancer",
author = "Huang, {Chien Yu} and Chang, {Yu Jia} and Luo, {Sheng Dean} and Batzorig Uyanga and Lin, {Feng Yen} and Tai, {Cheng Jeng} and Huang, {Ming Te}",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s13277-015-4083-x",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "4075--4082",
journal = "Tumor Biology",
issn = "1010-4283",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Maspin mediates the gemcitabine sensitivity of hormone-independent prostate cancer

AU - Huang, Chien Yu

AU - Chang, Yu Jia

AU - Luo, Sheng Dean

AU - Uyanga, Batzorig

AU - Lin, Feng Yen

AU - Tai, Cheng Jeng

AU - Huang, Ming Te

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Androgen deprivation therapy has constituted the main treatment for prostate cancer; however, tumors ultimately progress to hormone-independent prostate cancer (HIPC), and suitable therapeutic strategies for HIPC are not available. Maspin, which is also known as mammary serine protease inhibitor, has been suggested to be a valuable focus for targeted cancer therapy. Specifically, maspin has been shown to be upregulated after androgen ablation therapy. Gemcitabine is used as a first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, but its disease control rate is low. Furthermore, the role of maspin in the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine for HIPC remains unclear. The expression levels of maspin in PC-3 and DU145 cells were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Furthermore, the expression of maspin was silenced using shRNA technology to generate maspin-KD cells. The cytotoxicity of gemcitabine to prostate cancer cells was assessed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-3,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, whereas flow cytometry analyses and annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays were used to assess the ability of gemcitabine to induce apoptosis in maspin-KD and control cells. Additionally, the expression patterns of anti-apoptosis proteins (myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)) and pro-apoptosis proteins (Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)) were determined by Western blotting. In this study, PC-3 cells were more resistant to gemcitabine administration than DU145 cells, which correlated with the higher expression levels of maspin observed in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, maspin knockdown enhanced gemcitabine-induced cell death, as evidenced by the increased number of apoptotic cells. Gemcitabine treatment upregulated the levels of anti-apoptosis proteins (Mcl-2 and Bcl-2) in both scrambled control and maspin-KD cells; however, the fold changes in Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 expression were larger in gemcitabine-treated scrambled control cells than in maspin-KD cells. Finally, our findings indicate for the first time that maspin may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine in HIPC. Our results demonstrate that maspin knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to gemcitabine. Therefore, combining gemcitabine with a drug that targets maspin might constitute a valuable strategy for prostate cancer treatment.

AB - Androgen deprivation therapy has constituted the main treatment for prostate cancer; however, tumors ultimately progress to hormone-independent prostate cancer (HIPC), and suitable therapeutic strategies for HIPC are not available. Maspin, which is also known as mammary serine protease inhibitor, has been suggested to be a valuable focus for targeted cancer therapy. Specifically, maspin has been shown to be upregulated after androgen ablation therapy. Gemcitabine is used as a first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, but its disease control rate is low. Furthermore, the role of maspin in the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine for HIPC remains unclear. The expression levels of maspin in PC-3 and DU145 cells were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Furthermore, the expression of maspin was silenced using shRNA technology to generate maspin-KD cells. The cytotoxicity of gemcitabine to prostate cancer cells was assessed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-3,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, whereas flow cytometry analyses and annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays were used to assess the ability of gemcitabine to induce apoptosis in maspin-KD and control cells. Additionally, the expression patterns of anti-apoptosis proteins (myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)) and pro-apoptosis proteins (Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)) were determined by Western blotting. In this study, PC-3 cells were more resistant to gemcitabine administration than DU145 cells, which correlated with the higher expression levels of maspin observed in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, maspin knockdown enhanced gemcitabine-induced cell death, as evidenced by the increased number of apoptotic cells. Gemcitabine treatment upregulated the levels of anti-apoptosis proteins (Mcl-2 and Bcl-2) in both scrambled control and maspin-KD cells; however, the fold changes in Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 expression were larger in gemcitabine-treated scrambled control cells than in maspin-KD cells. Finally, our findings indicate for the first time that maspin may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine in HIPC. Our results demonstrate that maspin knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to gemcitabine. Therefore, combining gemcitabine with a drug that targets maspin might constitute a valuable strategy for prostate cancer treatment.

KW - Gemcitabine

KW - HIPC

KW - Maspin

KW - Prostate cancer

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84944916420&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84944916420&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s13277-015-4083-x

DO - 10.1007/s13277-015-4083-x

M3 - Article

C2 - 26490978

AN - SCOPUS:84944916420

VL - 37

SP - 4075

EP - 4082

JO - Tumor Biology

JF - Tumor Biology

SN - 1010-4283

IS - 3

ER -