Machine learning-Assisted immune profiling stratifies peri-implantitis patients with unique microbial colonization and clinical outcomes

Chin Wei Wang, Yuning Hao, Riccardo Di Gianfilippo, James Sugai, Jiaqian Li, Wang Gong, Kenneth S. Kornman, Hom Lay Wang, Nobuhiko Kamada, Yuying Xie, William V. Giannobile, Yu Leo Lei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rationale: The endemic of peri-implantitis affects over 25% of dental implants. Current treatment depends on empirical patient and site-based stratifications and lacks a consistent risk grading system. Methods: We investigated a unique cohort of peri-implantitis patients undergoing regenerative therapy with comprehensive clinical, immune, and microbial profiling. We utilized a robust outlier-resistant machine learning algorithm for immune deconvolution. Results: Unsupervised clustering identified risk groups with distinct immune profiles, microbial colonization dynamics, and regenerative outcomes. Low-risk patients exhibited elevated M1/M2-like macrophage ratios and lower B-cell infiltration. The low-risk immune profile was characterized by enhanced complement signaling and higher levels of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia were significantly enriched in high-risk individuals. Although surgery reduced microbial burden at the peri-implant interface in all groups, only low-risk individuals exhibited suppression of keystone pathogen re-colonization. Conclusion: Peri-implant immune microenvironment shapes microbial composition and the course of regeneration. Immune signatures show untapped potential in improving the risk-grading for peri-implantitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6703-6716
Number of pages14
JournalTheranostics
Volume11
Issue number14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • classification
  • FARDEEP
  • immune profiling
  • microbiome
  • peri-implantitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)

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