Although a number of studies have reported on the health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure, particularly in North American and European countries as well as China, the evidence about intermediate to high levels of PM2.5 exposures is still limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and risk of cardiopulmonary disease incidence in Taiwan with intermediate levels of PM2.5 exposure.A cohort of Taiwanese adults, who participated in the 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, was followed through 2016 to identify cardiopulmonary disease onset. Exposure to PM2.5 was estimated by incorporating a widespread monitoring network of air quality monitoring stations and microsensors. We used time-dependent Cox regression models to examine the associations between the PM2.5 exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for individual characteristics and ecological covariates. The natural cubic spline functions were used to explore the non-linear effects of the PM2.5 exposure.A total of 62 694 adults from 353 towns were enrolled. Each 10-μg/m3 increase in 5-year average exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 4.8\95\ -3.3, 13.6), 3.9\95\ -2.9, 11.1), 6.7\95\ 1.1, 12.7), 15.7\95\ -0.9, 35.1) and 11.5\95\ -0.8, 25.2). The concentration-response curve showed that there was no statistical evidence of non-linearity for most of the disease outcomes except for ischaemic heart disease (P for non-linearity = 0.014).Long-term exposure to intermediate levels of ambient PM2.5 was associated with cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Our study adds value to future application and national burden of disease estimation in evaluating the health co-benefits from ambient air pollution reduction policy in Asian countries.