Localization versus holism and intrinsic versus extrinsic views of the brain: A neurophilosophical approach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The brain can now be visualized in novel ways given the recent emergence of functional imaging techniques like functional magnetic resonance imaging. This revives old question from neuroscience and neurology that have focused on localizing mental states and their contents in particular regions or networks of the brain. Alternative to such localization, a holistic view of brain function where the whole brain participates in processing mental contents has been suggested. Therefore, I here discuss the alternative between localization and holism. In addition, the brain has often been considered to be mere reflex apparatus thus reacting merely mechanical to extrinsic stimuli - neural activity is consequently purely extrinsic. This has been challenged by the recent discovery of intrinsic that is internally generated neural activity in the brain. Therefore, I here contrast extrinsic and intrinsic view of the brain and, at the end, I draw an analogy between the philosopher's Immanuel Kant's view of the mind and an intrinsic view of the brain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalMinerva Psichiatrica
Volume55
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

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Brain
Neurology
Neurosciences
Reflex
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Keywords

  • Brain
  • Holistic health
  • Psychology
  • brain
  • brain function
  • consciousness
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • human
  • neuroscience
  • philosophy
  • psychology
  • review

Cite this

@article{60ce8a6307d44217b823f5e7e37ed36a,
title = "Localization versus holism and intrinsic versus extrinsic views of the brain: A neurophilosophical approach",
abstract = "The brain can now be visualized in novel ways given the recent emergence of functional imaging techniques like functional magnetic resonance imaging. This revives old question from neuroscience and neurology that have focused on localizing mental states and their contents in particular regions or networks of the brain. Alternative to such localization, a holistic view of brain function where the whole brain participates in processing mental contents has been suggested. Therefore, I here discuss the alternative between localization and holism. In addition, the brain has often been considered to be mere reflex apparatus thus reacting merely mechanical to extrinsic stimuli - neural activity is consequently purely extrinsic. This has been challenged by the recent discovery of intrinsic that is internally generated neural activity in the brain. Therefore, I here contrast extrinsic and intrinsic view of the brain and, at the end, I draw an analogy between the philosopher's Immanuel Kant's view of the mind and an intrinsic view of the brain.",
keywords = "Brain, Holistic health, Psychology, brain, brain function, consciousness, functional magnetic resonance imaging, human, neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, review",
author = "Northoff, {Georg Franz Josef}",
note = "Export Date: 11 May 2016 CODEN: MPSID Correspondence Address: Northoff, G.; Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Institute of Mental Health Research, 1145 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, Canada; email: georg.northoff@theroyal.ca References: Feinberg, T.E., (2009) From Axons to Identity: Neurological Explorations of the Nature of the Self, , New York: OT Norton & Company;; Van Eijsden, P., Hyder, F., Rothman, D.L., Shulman, R.G., Neurophysiology of functional imaging (2009) Neuroimage, 45, pp. 1047-1054; Logothetis, N.K., What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI (2008) Nature, 453 (7197), pp. 869-878. , DOI 10.1038/nature06976, PII NATURE06976; Northoff, G., (2011) Neuropsychoanalysis in Practice: Brain, Self and Objects, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Northoff, G., Immanuel Kant's mind and the brain's resting state (2012) Trends Cogn Sci, 16, pp. 356-359; Lashley, K.S., Persistent problems in the evolution of mind (1949) Q Rev Biol, 24, pp. 28-42; Luria, A.R., (1973) The Working Brain: An Introduction to Neuropsychology, , Trans. by Haigh, B. London: Penguin; Northoff, G., Coding (2013) Unlocking the Brain, 1. , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Northoff, G., Consciousness (2013) Unlocking the Brain, 2. , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Menon, V., Large-scale brain networks and psychopathology: A unifying triple network model (2011) Trends Cogn Sci, 15, pp. 483-506; Bar, M., The proactive brain: Using analogies and associations to generate predictions (2007) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 (7), pp. 280-289. , DOI 10.1016/j.tics.2007.05.005, PII S1364661307001295; Bar, M., The proactive brain: Memory for predictions (2009) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B. Biological Sciences, 364, pp. 1235-1243; Spreng, R.N., Mar, R.A., Kim, A.S., The common neural basis of autobiographical memory, prospection, navigation, theory of mind, and the default mode: A quantitative meta-analysis (2009) J Cogn Neurosci, 21, pp. 489-510; Critchley, H.D., Wiens, S., Rotshtein, P., Ohman, A., Dolan, R.J., Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness (2004) Nature Neuroscience, 7 (2), pp. 189-195. , DOI 10.1038/nn1176; Wiebking, C., Bauer, A., De Greck, M., Duncan, N.W., Tempelmann, C., Northoff, G., Abnormal body perception and neural activity in the insula in depression: An fMRI study of the depressed {"}material me{"} (2010) World J Biol Psychiatry, 11, pp. 538-549; Fan, Y., Duncan, N.W., De Greck, M., Northoff, G., Is there a core neural network in empathy? An fMRI based quantitative meta-analysis (2011) Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 35, pp. 903-911; Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., Sajonz, B., Lucke, C., Hagele, C., Sterzer, P., Attentional modulation of emotional stimulus processing in patients with major depression alterations in prefrontal cortical regions (2009) Neuroscience Letters, 463, pp. 108-113; Hayes, D.J., Northoff, G., Identifying a network of brain regions involved in aversion-related processing: A cross-species translational investigation (2011) Front Integr Neurosci, 5, p. 49; John, E.R., The sometimes pernicious role of theory in science (2006) International Journal of Psychophysiology, 62 (3), pp. 377-383. , DOI 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.01.007, PII S0167876006000298; Northoff, G., Neuropsychiatry: An old discipline in a new gestalt bridging biological psychiatry, neuropsychology, and cognitive neurology (2008) European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 258 (4), pp. 226-238. , DOI 10.1007/s00406-007-0783-6; Hagmann, P., Cammoun, L., Gigandet, X., Meuli, R., Honey, C.J., Wedeen, V.J., Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex (2008) PLoS Biology, 6, pp. e159; Sporns, O., (2011) Networks of the Brain, , Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; Hayes, D.J., Duncan, N.W., Wiebking, C., Pietruska, K., Qin, P., Lang, S., GABAA receptors predict aversion-related brain responses: An fMRI-PET investigation in healthy humans (2013) Neuropsychopharmacology, 38, pp. 1438-1450; Gonzalez-Castillo, J., Saad, Z.S., Handwerker, D.A., Inati, S.J., Brenowitz, N., Bandettini, P.A., Whole-brain, time-locked activation with simple tasks revealed using massive averaging and model-free analysis (2012) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, pp. 5487-5492; Kant, I., Guyer, P., Wood, A.W., (1998) Critique of Pure Reason, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Zeki, S., The disunity of consciousness (2008) Progress in Brain Research, 168, pp. 11-18",
year = "2014",
language = "English",
volume = "55",
pages = "1--15",
journal = "Minerva Psichiatrica",
issn = "0391-1772",
publisher = "Edizioni Minerva Medica",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Localization versus holism and intrinsic versus extrinsic views of the brain: A neurophilosophical approach

AU - Northoff, Georg Franz Josef

N1 - Export Date: 11 May 2016 CODEN: MPSID Correspondence Address: Northoff, G.; Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Institute of Mental Health Research, 1145 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, Canada; email: georg.northoff@theroyal.ca References: Feinberg, T.E., (2009) From Axons to Identity: Neurological Explorations of the Nature of the Self, , New York: OT Norton & Company;; Van Eijsden, P., Hyder, F., Rothman, D.L., Shulman, R.G., Neurophysiology of functional imaging (2009) Neuroimage, 45, pp. 1047-1054; Logothetis, N.K., What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI (2008) Nature, 453 (7197), pp. 869-878. , DOI 10.1038/nature06976, PII NATURE06976; Northoff, G., (2011) Neuropsychoanalysis in Practice: Brain, Self and Objects, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Northoff, G., Immanuel Kant's mind and the brain's resting state (2012) Trends Cogn Sci, 16, pp. 356-359; Lashley, K.S., Persistent problems in the evolution of mind (1949) Q Rev Biol, 24, pp. 28-42; Luria, A.R., (1973) The Working Brain: An Introduction to Neuropsychology, , Trans. by Haigh, B. London: Penguin; Northoff, G., Coding (2013) Unlocking the Brain, 1. , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Northoff, G., Consciousness (2013) Unlocking the Brain, 2. , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Menon, V., Large-scale brain networks and psychopathology: A unifying triple network model (2011) Trends Cogn Sci, 15, pp. 483-506; Bar, M., The proactive brain: Using analogies and associations to generate predictions (2007) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 (7), pp. 280-289. , DOI 10.1016/j.tics.2007.05.005, PII S1364661307001295; Bar, M., The proactive brain: Memory for predictions (2009) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B. Biological Sciences, 364, pp. 1235-1243; Spreng, R.N., Mar, R.A., Kim, A.S., The common neural basis of autobiographical memory, prospection, navigation, theory of mind, and the default mode: A quantitative meta-analysis (2009) J Cogn Neurosci, 21, pp. 489-510; Critchley, H.D., Wiens, S., Rotshtein, P., Ohman, A., Dolan, R.J., Neural systems supporting interoceptive awareness (2004) Nature Neuroscience, 7 (2), pp. 189-195. , DOI 10.1038/nn1176; Wiebking, C., Bauer, A., De Greck, M., Duncan, N.W., Tempelmann, C., Northoff, G., Abnormal body perception and neural activity in the insula in depression: An fMRI study of the depressed "material me" (2010) World J Biol Psychiatry, 11, pp. 538-549; Fan, Y., Duncan, N.W., De Greck, M., Northoff, G., Is there a core neural network in empathy? An fMRI based quantitative meta-analysis (2011) Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 35, pp. 903-911; Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., Sajonz, B., Lucke, C., Hagele, C., Sterzer, P., Attentional modulation of emotional stimulus processing in patients with major depression alterations in prefrontal cortical regions (2009) Neuroscience Letters, 463, pp. 108-113; Hayes, D.J., Northoff, G., Identifying a network of brain regions involved in aversion-related processing: A cross-species translational investigation (2011) Front Integr Neurosci, 5, p. 49; John, E.R., The sometimes pernicious role of theory in science (2006) International Journal of Psychophysiology, 62 (3), pp. 377-383. , DOI 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.01.007, PII S0167876006000298; Northoff, G., Neuropsychiatry: An old discipline in a new gestalt bridging biological psychiatry, neuropsychology, and cognitive neurology (2008) European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 258 (4), pp. 226-238. , DOI 10.1007/s00406-007-0783-6; Hagmann, P., Cammoun, L., Gigandet, X., Meuli, R., Honey, C.J., Wedeen, V.J., Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex (2008) PLoS Biology, 6, pp. e159; Sporns, O., (2011) Networks of the Brain, , Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; Hayes, D.J., Duncan, N.W., Wiebking, C., Pietruska, K., Qin, P., Lang, S., GABAA receptors predict aversion-related brain responses: An fMRI-PET investigation in healthy humans (2013) Neuropsychopharmacology, 38, pp. 1438-1450; Gonzalez-Castillo, J., Saad, Z.S., Handwerker, D.A., Inati, S.J., Brenowitz, N., Bandettini, P.A., Whole-brain, time-locked activation with simple tasks revealed using massive averaging and model-free analysis (2012) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, pp. 5487-5492; Kant, I., Guyer, P., Wood, A.W., (1998) Critique of Pure Reason, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Zeki, S., The disunity of consciousness (2008) Progress in Brain Research, 168, pp. 11-18

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The brain can now be visualized in novel ways given the recent emergence of functional imaging techniques like functional magnetic resonance imaging. This revives old question from neuroscience and neurology that have focused on localizing mental states and their contents in particular regions or networks of the brain. Alternative to such localization, a holistic view of brain function where the whole brain participates in processing mental contents has been suggested. Therefore, I here discuss the alternative between localization and holism. In addition, the brain has often been considered to be mere reflex apparatus thus reacting merely mechanical to extrinsic stimuli - neural activity is consequently purely extrinsic. This has been challenged by the recent discovery of intrinsic that is internally generated neural activity in the brain. Therefore, I here contrast extrinsic and intrinsic view of the brain and, at the end, I draw an analogy between the philosopher's Immanuel Kant's view of the mind and an intrinsic view of the brain.

AB - The brain can now be visualized in novel ways given the recent emergence of functional imaging techniques like functional magnetic resonance imaging. This revives old question from neuroscience and neurology that have focused on localizing mental states and their contents in particular regions or networks of the brain. Alternative to such localization, a holistic view of brain function where the whole brain participates in processing mental contents has been suggested. Therefore, I here discuss the alternative between localization and holism. In addition, the brain has often been considered to be mere reflex apparatus thus reacting merely mechanical to extrinsic stimuli - neural activity is consequently purely extrinsic. This has been challenged by the recent discovery of intrinsic that is internally generated neural activity in the brain. Therefore, I here contrast extrinsic and intrinsic view of the brain and, at the end, I draw an analogy between the philosopher's Immanuel Kant's view of the mind and an intrinsic view of the brain.

KW - Brain

KW - Holistic health

KW - Psychology

KW - brain

KW - brain function

KW - consciousness

KW - functional magnetic resonance imaging

KW - human

KW - neuroscience

KW - philosophy

KW - psychology

KW - review

M3 - Article

VL - 55

SP - 1

EP - 15

JO - Minerva Psichiatrica

JF - Minerva Psichiatrica

SN - 0391-1772

IS - 1

ER -