Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation triggers mania and induces cardiac fibrosis. Beyond neuroprotection, lithium has cardioprotective potential and antifibrotic activity. This study investigated whether lithium improved REM sleep deprivation-induced cardiac dysfunction and evaluated the potential mechanisms. Transthoracic echocardiography, histopathological analysis, and Western blot analysis were performed in control and REM sleep-deprived rats with or without lithium treatment (LiCl of 1 mmol/kg/day administered by oral gavage for 4 weeks) in vivo and in isolated ventricular preparations. The results revealed that REM sleep-deprived rats exhibited impaired contractility and greater fibrosis than control and lithium-treated REM sleep-deprived rats. Western blot analysis showed that REM sleep-deprived hearts had higher expression levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), phosphorylated Smad 2/3, and alpha-smooth muscle actin than lithium-treated REM sleep-deprived and control hearts. Moreover, lithium-treated REM sleep-deprived hearts had lower expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B p65, calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1, transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 1, and TRPC3 than REM sleep-deprived hearts. The findings suggest that lithium attenuates REM sleep deprivation-induced cardiac fibrogenesis and dysfunction possibly through the downregulation of TGF-β, angiotensin II, and Ca2+ signaling.
- rapid eye movement sleep deprivation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry