Levels and temporal variations of urinary lead, cadmium, cobalt, and copper exposure in the general population of Taiwan

Kai Wei Liao, Wen Harn Pan, Saou Hsing Liou, Chien Wen Sun, Po Chin Huang, Shu Li Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Toxic metal contamination in food products and the environment is a public health concern. Therefore, understanding human exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu) levels in the general population of Taiwan is necessary and urgent. We aimed to establish the human biomonitoring data of urine toxic metals, exposure profile changes, and factors associated with metal levels in the general population of Taiwan. We randomly selected 1601 participants older than 7 years of age (36.9 ± 18.7 years (7–84 years)) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted during 1993–1996 (93–96) and 2005–2008 (05–08) periods and measured the levels of four metals in the participants’ urine samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median (range) levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu in participants from the NAHSIT 93–96 (N = 821)/05–08 (N = 780) were 0.60 (ND–13.90)/0.72 (ND–7.44), 2.28 (ND–63.60)/1.09 (0.04–48.88), 0.91 (0.08–17.30)/1.05 (0.05–22.43), and 16.87 (2.62–158.28)/13.66 (1.67–189.70) μg/L, respectively. We found that the urinary median levels of Pb and Cu in our participants were significantly lower in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Pb 1.09 μg/L, Cu 13.66 μg/L) than in the NAHSIT 93–96 (Pb 2.28 μg/L, Cu 16.87 μg/L; P < 0.01), whereas those of Cd and Co were significantly higher in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Cd 0.72 μg/L, Co 1.05 μg/L; P < 0.01). Youths had higher exposure levels of Pb, Co, and Cu than adults. Participants with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking had significantly higher median levels of urinary Pb or Cu (P < 0.01) than those without. Principal components and cluster analysis revealed that sex had different exposure profiles of metals. We concluded that levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu exposure in the general Taiwanese varied by age, sex, and lifestyles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6048-6064
Number of pages17
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 28 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cobalt
health survey
Cadmium
Taiwan
cobalt
Nutrition
Copper
Nutrition Surveys
temporal variation
cadmium
Lead
Health Surveys
nutrition
copper
Metals
Population
Poisons
urine
metal
Mastication

Keywords

  • General population
  • Human biomonitoring
  • Metals
  • Taiwan
  • Urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Levels and temporal variations of urinary lead, cadmium, cobalt, and copper exposure in the general population of Taiwan. / Liao, Kai Wei; Pan, Wen Harn; Liou, Saou Hsing; Sun, Chien Wen; Huang, Po Chin; Wang, Shu Li.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 26, No. 6, 28.02.2019, p. 6048-6064.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liao, Kai Wei ; Pan, Wen Harn ; Liou, Saou Hsing ; Sun, Chien Wen ; Huang, Po Chin ; Wang, Shu Li. / Levels and temporal variations of urinary lead, cadmium, cobalt, and copper exposure in the general population of Taiwan. In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2019 ; Vol. 26, No. 6. pp. 6048-6064.
@article{c3ed555e5e6f4f4383c1fddd50953121,
title = "Levels and temporal variations of urinary lead, cadmium, cobalt, and copper exposure in the general population of Taiwan",
abstract = "Toxic metal contamination in food products and the environment is a public health concern. Therefore, understanding human exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu) levels in the general population of Taiwan is necessary and urgent. We aimed to establish the human biomonitoring data of urine toxic metals, exposure profile changes, and factors associated with metal levels in the general population of Taiwan. We randomly selected 1601 participants older than 7 years of age (36.9 ± 18.7 years (7–84 years)) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted during 1993–1996 (93–96) and 2005–2008 (05–08) periods and measured the levels of four metals in the participants’ urine samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median (range) levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu in participants from the NAHSIT 93–96 (N = 821)/05–08 (N = 780) were 0.60 (ND–13.90)/0.72 (ND–7.44), 2.28 (ND–63.60)/1.09 (0.04–48.88), 0.91 (0.08–17.30)/1.05 (0.05–22.43), and 16.87 (2.62–158.28)/13.66 (1.67–189.70) μg/L, respectively. We found that the urinary median levels of Pb and Cu in our participants were significantly lower in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Pb 1.09 μg/L, Cu 13.66 μg/L) than in the NAHSIT 93–96 (Pb 2.28 μg/L, Cu 16.87 μg/L; P < 0.01), whereas those of Cd and Co were significantly higher in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Cd 0.72 μg/L, Co 1.05 μg/L; P < 0.01). Youths had higher exposure levels of Pb, Co, and Cu than adults. Participants with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking had significantly higher median levels of urinary Pb or Cu (P < 0.01) than those without. Principal components and cluster analysis revealed that sex had different exposure profiles of metals. We concluded that levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu exposure in the general Taiwanese varied by age, sex, and lifestyles.",
keywords = "General population, Human biomonitoring, Metals, Taiwan, Urine",
author = "Liao, {Kai Wei} and Pan, {Wen Harn} and Liou, {Saou Hsing} and Sun, {Chien Wen} and Huang, {Po Chin} and Wang, {Shu Li}",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1007/s11356-018-3911-0",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "6048--6064",
journal = "Environmental Science and Pollution Research",
issn = "0944-1344",
publisher = "Springer Science + Business Media",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Levels and temporal variations of urinary lead, cadmium, cobalt, and copper exposure in the general population of Taiwan

AU - Liao, Kai Wei

AU - Pan, Wen Harn

AU - Liou, Saou Hsing

AU - Sun, Chien Wen

AU - Huang, Po Chin

AU - Wang, Shu Li

PY - 2019/2/28

Y1 - 2019/2/28

N2 - Toxic metal contamination in food products and the environment is a public health concern. Therefore, understanding human exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu) levels in the general population of Taiwan is necessary and urgent. We aimed to establish the human biomonitoring data of urine toxic metals, exposure profile changes, and factors associated with metal levels in the general population of Taiwan. We randomly selected 1601 participants older than 7 years of age (36.9 ± 18.7 years (7–84 years)) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted during 1993–1996 (93–96) and 2005–2008 (05–08) periods and measured the levels of four metals in the participants’ urine samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median (range) levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu in participants from the NAHSIT 93–96 (N = 821)/05–08 (N = 780) were 0.60 (ND–13.90)/0.72 (ND–7.44), 2.28 (ND–63.60)/1.09 (0.04–48.88), 0.91 (0.08–17.30)/1.05 (0.05–22.43), and 16.87 (2.62–158.28)/13.66 (1.67–189.70) μg/L, respectively. We found that the urinary median levels of Pb and Cu in our participants were significantly lower in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Pb 1.09 μg/L, Cu 13.66 μg/L) than in the NAHSIT 93–96 (Pb 2.28 μg/L, Cu 16.87 μg/L; P < 0.01), whereas those of Cd and Co were significantly higher in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Cd 0.72 μg/L, Co 1.05 μg/L; P < 0.01). Youths had higher exposure levels of Pb, Co, and Cu than adults. Participants with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking had significantly higher median levels of urinary Pb or Cu (P < 0.01) than those without. Principal components and cluster analysis revealed that sex had different exposure profiles of metals. We concluded that levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu exposure in the general Taiwanese varied by age, sex, and lifestyles.

AB - Toxic metal contamination in food products and the environment is a public health concern. Therefore, understanding human exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu) levels in the general population of Taiwan is necessary and urgent. We aimed to establish the human biomonitoring data of urine toxic metals, exposure profile changes, and factors associated with metal levels in the general population of Taiwan. We randomly selected 1601 participants older than 7 years of age (36.9 ± 18.7 years (7–84 years)) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted during 1993–1996 (93–96) and 2005–2008 (05–08) periods and measured the levels of four metals in the participants’ urine samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median (range) levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu in participants from the NAHSIT 93–96 (N = 821)/05–08 (N = 780) were 0.60 (ND–13.90)/0.72 (ND–7.44), 2.28 (ND–63.60)/1.09 (0.04–48.88), 0.91 (0.08–17.30)/1.05 (0.05–22.43), and 16.87 (2.62–158.28)/13.66 (1.67–189.70) μg/L, respectively. We found that the urinary median levels of Pb and Cu in our participants were significantly lower in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Pb 1.09 μg/L, Cu 13.66 μg/L) than in the NAHSIT 93–96 (Pb 2.28 μg/L, Cu 16.87 μg/L; P < 0.01), whereas those of Cd and Co were significantly higher in the NAHSIT 05–08 (Cd 0.72 μg/L, Co 1.05 μg/L; P < 0.01). Youths had higher exposure levels of Pb, Co, and Cu than adults. Participants with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking had significantly higher median levels of urinary Pb or Cu (P < 0.01) than those without. Principal components and cluster analysis revealed that sex had different exposure profiles of metals. We concluded that levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu exposure in the general Taiwanese varied by age, sex, and lifestyles.

KW - General population

KW - Human biomonitoring

KW - Metals

KW - Taiwan

KW - Urine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85059506335&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85059506335&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s11356-018-3911-0

DO - 10.1007/s11356-018-3911-0

M3 - Article

C2 - 30612372

AN - SCOPUS:85059506335

VL - 26

SP - 6048

EP - 6064

JO - Environmental Science and Pollution Research

JF - Environmental Science and Pollution Research

SN - 0944-1344

IS - 6

ER -