L-Lysine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes

Teng Le Huang, Chang Chin Wu, Jia-shing Yu, Shoichiro Sumi, K.-C. Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Inflammatory cytokines, which induce articular chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic transformation and apoptotic death, mediate osteoarthritis (OA) progression. l-Lysine (Lys) are involved in multiple biological processes including inflammatory regulation. However, rare research has addressed the effects of Lys on human chondrocytes. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage of OA patients, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and subsequently supplied with Lys. Lys improved hypertrophic transformation of chondrocytes. However, the proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes was still faster than that of unstimulated cells even under providing Lys supplement. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) decreased when normal chondrocytes treated with Lys. IL-1β stimulation upregulated type I collagen, type X collagen, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3, MMP-9 and downregulated aggrecan, type II collagen mRNA levels. On the contrary, Lys downregulated TNF-α, MMP-3 levels, restored aggrecan and collagens expressions, and further increased the aggrecan/type I collagen and type II collagen/type I collagen rations in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. In addition, Lys treatment decreased the protein productions of TNF-α and MMP-3 in stimulated cells. Our results suggest that Lys may modulate matrix proteins, inflammatory and catabolic cytokines in OA chondrocytes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)904-911
Number of pages8
JournalProcess Biochemistry
Volume51
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Matrix Metalloproteinase 3
Chondrocytes
Collagen
Lysine
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Interleukin-1
Aggrecans
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Osteoarthritis
Collagen Type II
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Proteins
Down-Regulation
Collagen Type X
Cartilage
Cytokines
Biological Phenomena
Metalloproteases
Messenger RNA
Articular Cartilage

Keywords

  • Chondrocyte
  • Hypertrophy
  • Inflammatory cytokine
  • l-lysine
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Amino acids
  • Cartilage
  • Collagen
  • Glycoproteins
  • Macrophages
  • Proteins
  • Tumors
  • Chondrocytes
  • Cytokines
  • l-Lysine
  • Body fluids

Cite this

L-Lysine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. / Huang, Teng Le; Wu, Chang Chin; Yu, Jia-shing; Sumi, Shoichiro; Yang, K.-C.

In: Process Biochemistry, Vol. 51, No. 7, 2016, p. 904-911.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huang, Teng Le ; Wu, Chang Chin ; Yu, Jia-shing ; Sumi, Shoichiro ; Yang, K.-C. / L-Lysine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. In: Process Biochemistry. 2016 ; Vol. 51, No. 7. pp. 904-911.
@article{35053715ae754ac593782da8203df80f,
title = "L-Lysine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes",
abstract = "Inflammatory cytokines, which induce articular chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic transformation and apoptotic death, mediate osteoarthritis (OA) progression. l-Lysine (Lys) are involved in multiple biological processes including inflammatory regulation. However, rare research has addressed the effects of Lys on human chondrocytes. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage of OA patients, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and subsequently supplied with Lys. Lys improved hypertrophic transformation of chondrocytes. However, the proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes was still faster than that of unstimulated cells even under providing Lys supplement. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) decreased when normal chondrocytes treated with Lys. IL-1β stimulation upregulated type I collagen, type X collagen, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3, MMP-9 and downregulated aggrecan, type II collagen mRNA levels. On the contrary, Lys downregulated TNF-α, MMP-3 levels, restored aggrecan and collagens expressions, and further increased the aggrecan/type I collagen and type II collagen/type I collagen rations in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. In addition, Lys treatment decreased the protein productions of TNF-α and MMP-3 in stimulated cells. Our results suggest that Lys may modulate matrix proteins, inflammatory and catabolic cytokines in OA chondrocytes. {\circledC} 2016 Elsevier Ltd.",
keywords = "Chondrocyte, Hypertrophy, Inflammatory cytokine, l-lysine, Osteoarthritis, Amino acids, Cartilage, Collagen, Glycoproteins, Macrophages, Proteins, Tumors, Chondrocytes, Cytokines, l-Lysine, Body fluids",
author = "Huang, {Teng Le} and Wu, {Chang Chin} and Jia-shing Yu and Shoichiro Sumi and K.-C. Yang",
note = "Export Date: 24 August 2016 CODEN: PBCHE 通訊地址: Yang, K.-C.; School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wuxing St, Taiwan; 電子郵件: pumpkin@tmu.edu.tw 參考文獻: Wang, Y., Xu, D., Long, L., Deng, X., Tao, R., Huang, G., Correlation between plasma, synovial fluid and articular cartilage Interleukin-18 with radiographic severity in 33 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee (2014) Clin. Exp. Med., 14 (3), pp. 297-304; Berenbaum, F., Osteoarthritis as an inflammatory disease (osteoarthritis is not osteoarthrosis!) (2013) Osteoarthr. Cartil., 21 (1), pp. 16-21; Bartok, B., Firestein, G.S., Fibroblast-like synoviocytes: Key effector cells in rheumatoid arthritis (2010) Immunol. Rev., 233 (1), pp. 233-255; Hoff, P., Buttgereit, F., Burmester, G.R., Jakstadt, M., Gaber, T., Andreas, K., Matziolis, G., R{\"o}hner, E., Osteoarthritis synovial fluid activates pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary human chondrocytes (2013) Int. Orthop., 37 (1), pp. 145-151; Mu{\~n}oz-Valle, J.F., Oreg{\'o}n-Romero, E., Rangel-Villalobos, H., Mart{\'i}nez-Bonilla, G.E., Casta{\~n}eda-Saucedo, E., Salgado-Goytia, L., Leyva-V{\'a}zquez, M.A., Parra-Rojas, I., High expression of TNF alpha is associated with -308 and -238 TNF alpha polymorphisms in knee osteoarthritis (2014) Clin. Exp. Med., 14 (1), pp. 61-67; Ohata, J., Zvaifler, N.J., Nishio, M., Boyle, D.L., Kalled, S.L., Carson, D.A., Kipps, T.J., Fibroblast-like synoviocytes of mesenchymal origin express functional B cell-activating factor of the TNF family in response to proinflammatory cytokines (2005) J. Immunol., 174 (2), pp. 864-870; Kapoor, M., Martel-Pelletier, J., Lajeunesse, D., Pelletier, J.P., Fahmi, H., Role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (2011) Nat. Rev. Rheumatol., 7 (1), pp. 33-42; Thomas, C.M., Fuller, C.J., Whittles, C.E., Sharif, M., Chondrocyte death by apoptosis is associated with the initiation and severity of articular cartilage degradation (2011) Int. J. Rheum. Dis., 14 (2), pp. 191-198; Tom{\'e}, D., Bos, C., Lysine requirement through the human life cycle (2007) J. Nutr., 137 (6 SUPPL. 2), pp. 1642S-1645S; Singh, M., Rao, D.M., Pande, S., Battu, S., Dutt, K.R., Ramesh, M., Medicinal uses of l-lysine: Past and future (2011) Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 2, pp. 637-642; Smriga, M., Ando, T., Akutsu, M., Furukawa, Y., Miwa, K., Morinaga, Y., Oral treatment with l-lysine and l-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans (2007) Biomed. Res., 28 (2), pp. 85-90; Gelse, K., P{\"o}schl, E., Aigner, T., Collagens-structure, function, and biosynthesis (2003) Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 55 (12), pp. 1531-1546; Yamauchi, M., Sricholpech, M., Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen (2012) Essays Biochem., 52, pp. 113-133; Torricelli, P., Fini, M., Giavaresi, G., Giardino, R., Gnudi, S., Nicolini, A., Carpi A: L-arginine and l-lysine stimulation on cultured human osteoblasts (2002) Biomed. Pharmacother., 56 (10), pp. 492-497; Torricelli, P., Fini, M., Giavaresi, G., Giardino, R., Bone tissue cultures: An in vitro model for the evaluation of bone defect healing after l-arginine and l-lysine administration (2001) Artif. Cells Blood Substit. Immobil. Biotechnol., 29 (4), pp. 325-334; Fini, M., Torricelli, P., Giavaresi, G., Carpi, A., Nicolini, A., Giardino, R., Effect of l-lysine and l-arginine on primary osteoblast cultures from normal and osteopenic rats (2001) Biomed. Pharmacother., 55 (4), pp. 213-220; Verzijl, N., DeGroot, J., Oldehinkel, E., Bank, R.A., Thorpe, S.R., Baynes, J.W., Bayliss, M.T., Tekoppele, J.M., Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen (2000) Biochem. J, 350 (PT. 2), pp. 381-387; Harris, H.A., Neuberger, A., Sanger, F., Lysine deficiency in young rats (1943) Biochem. J., 37 (4), pp. 508-513; Yang, K.C., Chen, H.T., Wu, C.C., Lian, Y.J., Chen, L.L., Sumi, S., Huang TL l-Glutamine regulates the expression of matrix proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and catabolic enzymes in IL-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes (2016) Process Biochem., 51 (3), pp. 414-421; Mine, Y., Zhang, H., Anti-inflammatory effects of poly-l-lysine in intestinal mucosal system mediated by calcium-sensing receptor activation (2015) J. Agric. Food Chem., 63 (48), pp. 10437-10447; Jia, Y.R., Hu, R., Ku, B.S., Study on anti-inflammatory effects of the complex (LaiJinsi) of EHPL and lysine hydrochloride (2004) Chin. J. Exp. Tradit. Med. Formulae, 10, pp. 35-37; Tsubuku, S., Mochizuki, M., Mawatari, K., Smriga, M., Kimura, T., Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of l-lysine hydrochloride in rats (2004) Int. J. Toxicol., 23 (2), pp. 113-118; Zeinoddini, A., Ahadi, M., Farokhnia, M., Rezaei, F., Tabrizi, M., Akhondzadeh, S., L-lysine as an adjunct to risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (2014) J. Psychiatr. Res., 59, pp. 125-131; Chen, W.P., Wang, Y.L., Tang, J.L., Hu, P.F., Bao, J.P., Wu, L.D., Morin inhibits interleukin-1β-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in human chondrocytes (2012) Int. Immunopharmacol., 12 (2), pp. 447-452; Shakibaei, M., Csaki, C., Nebrich, S., Mobasheri, A., Resveratrol suppresses interleukin-1beta-induced inflammatory signaling and apoptosis in human articular chondrocytes: Potential for use as a novel nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis (2008) Biochem. Pharmacol., 76 (11), pp. 1426-1439; Pu, Y., Cao, D., Xie, C., Pei, H., Li, D., Tang, M., Chen, L., Anti-arthritis effect of a novel quinazoline derivative through inhibiting production of TNF-α mediated by TNF-α converting enzyme in murine collagen-induced arthritis model (2015) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 462 (4), pp. 288-293; Lee, J.H., In-vitro evaluation for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory property of flavanone derivatives (2015) Food Biosci., 11, pp. 1-7; Ashraf, S., Cha, B.H., Kim, J.S., Ahn, J., Han, I., Park, H., Lee, S.H., Regulation of senescence associated signaling mechanisms in chondrocytes for cartilage tissue regeneration (2016) Osteoarthr. Cartil., 24 (2), pp. 196-205; Varghese, S., Theprungsirikul, P., Sahani, S., Hwang, N., Yarema, K.J., Elisseeff, J.H., Glucosamine modulates chondrocyte proliferation, matrix synthesis, and gene expression (2007) Osteoarthr. Cartil., 15 (1), pp. 59-68; Yudoh, K., Karasawa, R., Statin prevents chondrocyte aging and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA) (2010) Aging (Albany NY), 2 (12), pp. 990-998; Barbero, A., Grogan, S., Sch{\"a}fer, D., Heberer, M., Mainil-Varlet, P., Martin, I., Age related changes in human articular chondrocyte yield, proliferation and post-expansion chondrogenic capacity (2004) Osteoarthr. Cartil., 12 (6), pp. 476-484; Malicev, E., Kregar-Velikonja, N., Barlic, A., Alibegović, A., Drobnic, M., Comparison of articular and auricular cartilage as a cell source for the autologous chondrocyte implantation (2009) J. Orthop. 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year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.procbio.2016.04.009",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "904--911",
journal = "Process Biochemistry",
issn = "1359-5113",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - L-Lysine regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes

AU - Huang, Teng Le

AU - Wu, Chang Chin

AU - Yu, Jia-shing

AU - Sumi, Shoichiro

AU - Yang, K.-C.

N1 - Export Date: 24 August 2016 CODEN: PBCHE 通訊地址: Yang, K.-C.; School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wuxing St, Taiwan; 電子郵件: pumpkin@tmu.edu.tw 參考文獻: Wang, Y., Xu, D., Long, L., Deng, X., Tao, R., Huang, G., Correlation between plasma, synovial fluid and articular cartilage Interleukin-18 with radiographic severity in 33 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee (2014) Clin. Exp. Med., 14 (3), pp. 297-304; Berenbaum, F., Osteoarthritis as an inflammatory disease (osteoarthritis is not osteoarthrosis!) (2013) Osteoarthr. Cartil., 21 (1), pp. 16-21; Bartok, B., Firestein, G.S., Fibroblast-like synoviocytes: Key effector cells in rheumatoid arthritis (2010) Immunol. Rev., 233 (1), pp. 233-255; Hoff, P., Buttgereit, F., Burmester, G.R., Jakstadt, M., Gaber, T., Andreas, K., Matziolis, G., Röhner, E., Osteoarthritis synovial fluid activates pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary human chondrocytes (2013) Int. Orthop., 37 (1), pp. 145-151; Muñoz-Valle, J.F., Oregón-Romero, E., Rangel-Villalobos, H., Martínez-Bonilla, G.E., Castañeda-Saucedo, E., Salgado-Goytia, L., Leyva-Vázquez, M.A., Parra-Rojas, I., High expression of TNF alpha is associated with -308 and -238 TNF alpha polymorphisms in knee osteoarthritis (2014) Clin. Exp. Med., 14 (1), pp. 61-67; Ohata, J., Zvaifler, N.J., Nishio, M., Boyle, D.L., Kalled, S.L., Carson, D.A., Kipps, T.J., Fibroblast-like synoviocytes of mesenchymal origin express functional B cell-activating factor of the TNF family in response to proinflammatory cytokines (2005) J. Immunol., 174 (2), pp. 864-870; Kapoor, M., Martel-Pelletier, J., Lajeunesse, D., Pelletier, J.P., Fahmi, H., Role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (2011) Nat. Rev. Rheumatol., 7 (1), pp. 33-42; Thomas, C.M., Fuller, C.J., Whittles, C.E., Sharif, M., Chondrocyte death by apoptosis is associated with the initiation and severity of articular cartilage degradation (2011) Int. J. Rheum. Dis., 14 (2), pp. 191-198; Tomé, D., Bos, C., Lysine requirement through the human life cycle (2007) J. Nutr., 137 (6 SUPPL. 2), pp. 1642S-1645S; Singh, M., Rao, D.M., Pande, S., Battu, S., Dutt, K.R., Ramesh, M., Medicinal uses of l-lysine: Past and future (2011) Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 2, pp. 637-642; Smriga, M., Ando, T., Akutsu, M., Furukawa, Y., Miwa, K., Morinaga, Y., Oral treatment with l-lysine and l-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans (2007) Biomed. Res., 28 (2), pp. 85-90; Gelse, K., Pöschl, E., Aigner, T., Collagens-structure, function, and biosynthesis (2003) Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 55 (12), pp. 1531-1546; Yamauchi, M., Sricholpech, M., Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen (2012) Essays Biochem., 52, pp. 113-133; Torricelli, P., Fini, M., Giavaresi, G., Giardino, R., Gnudi, S., Nicolini, A., Carpi A: L-arginine and l-lysine stimulation on cultured human osteoblasts (2002) Biomed. Pharmacother., 56 (10), pp. 492-497; Torricelli, P., Fini, M., Giavaresi, G., Giardino, R., Bone tissue cultures: An in vitro model for the evaluation of bone defect healing after l-arginine and l-lysine administration (2001) Artif. Cells Blood Substit. Immobil. Biotechnol., 29 (4), pp. 325-334; Fini, M., Torricelli, P., Giavaresi, G., Carpi, A., Nicolini, A., Giardino, R., Effect of l-lysine and l-arginine on primary osteoblast cultures from normal and osteopenic rats (2001) Biomed. Pharmacother., 55 (4), pp. 213-220; Verzijl, N., DeGroot, J., Oldehinkel, E., Bank, R.A., Thorpe, S.R., Baynes, J.W., Bayliss, M.T., Tekoppele, J.M., Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen (2000) Biochem. J, 350 (PT. 2), pp. 381-387; Harris, H.A., Neuberger, A., Sanger, F., Lysine deficiency in young rats (1943) Biochem. J., 37 (4), pp. 508-513; Yang, K.C., Chen, H.T., Wu, C.C., Lian, Y.J., Chen, L.L., Sumi, S., Huang TL l-Glutamine regulates the expression of matrix proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and catabolic enzymes in IL-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes (2016) Process Biochem., 51 (3), pp. 414-421; Mine, Y., Zhang, H., Anti-inflammatory effects of poly-l-lysine in intestinal mucosal system mediated by calcium-sensing receptor activation (2015) J. Agric. Food Chem., 63 (48), pp. 10437-10447; Jia, Y.R., Hu, R., Ku, B.S., Study on anti-inflammatory effects of the complex (LaiJinsi) of EHPL and lysine hydrochloride (2004) Chin. J. Exp. Tradit. Med. Formulae, 10, pp. 35-37; Tsubuku, S., Mochizuki, M., Mawatari, K., Smriga, M., Kimura, T., Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of l-lysine hydrochloride in rats (2004) Int. J. Toxicol., 23 (2), pp. 113-118; Zeinoddini, A., Ahadi, M., Farokhnia, M., Rezaei, F., Tabrizi, M., Akhondzadeh, S., L-lysine as an adjunct to risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (2014) J. Psychiatr. Res., 59, pp. 125-131; Chen, W.P., Wang, Y.L., Tang, J.L., Hu, P.F., Bao, J.P., Wu, L.D., Morin inhibits interleukin-1β-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in human chondrocytes (2012) Int. 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Cartil., 24 (2), pp. 196-205; Varghese, S., Theprungsirikul, P., Sahani, S., Hwang, N., Yarema, K.J., Elisseeff, J.H., Glucosamine modulates chondrocyte proliferation, matrix synthesis, and gene expression (2007) Osteoarthr. Cartil., 15 (1), pp. 59-68; Yudoh, K., Karasawa, R., Statin prevents chondrocyte aging and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA) (2010) Aging (Albany NY), 2 (12), pp. 990-998; Barbero, A., Grogan, S., Schäfer, D., Heberer, M., Mainil-Varlet, P., Martin, I., Age related changes in human articular chondrocyte yield, proliferation and post-expansion chondrogenic capacity (2004) Osteoarthr. Cartil., 12 (6), pp. 476-484; Malicev, E., Kregar-Velikonja, N., Barlic, A., Alibegović, A., Drobnic, M., Comparison of articular and auricular cartilage as a cell source for the autologous chondrocyte implantation (2009) J. Orthop. 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PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Inflammatory cytokines, which induce articular chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic transformation and apoptotic death, mediate osteoarthritis (OA) progression. l-Lysine (Lys) are involved in multiple biological processes including inflammatory regulation. However, rare research has addressed the effects of Lys on human chondrocytes. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage of OA patients, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and subsequently supplied with Lys. Lys improved hypertrophic transformation of chondrocytes. However, the proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes was still faster than that of unstimulated cells even under providing Lys supplement. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) decreased when normal chondrocytes treated with Lys. IL-1β stimulation upregulated type I collagen, type X collagen, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3, MMP-9 and downregulated aggrecan, type II collagen mRNA levels. On the contrary, Lys downregulated TNF-α, MMP-3 levels, restored aggrecan and collagens expressions, and further increased the aggrecan/type I collagen and type II collagen/type I collagen rations in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. In addition, Lys treatment decreased the protein productions of TNF-α and MMP-3 in stimulated cells. Our results suggest that Lys may modulate matrix proteins, inflammatory and catabolic cytokines in OA chondrocytes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

AB - Inflammatory cytokines, which induce articular chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic transformation and apoptotic death, mediate osteoarthritis (OA) progression. l-Lysine (Lys) are involved in multiple biological processes including inflammatory regulation. However, rare research has addressed the effects of Lys on human chondrocytes. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage of OA patients, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and subsequently supplied with Lys. Lys improved hypertrophic transformation of chondrocytes. However, the proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes was still faster than that of unstimulated cells even under providing Lys supplement. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) decreased when normal chondrocytes treated with Lys. IL-1β stimulation upregulated type I collagen, type X collagen, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3, MMP-9 and downregulated aggrecan, type II collagen mRNA levels. On the contrary, Lys downregulated TNF-α, MMP-3 levels, restored aggrecan and collagens expressions, and further increased the aggrecan/type I collagen and type II collagen/type I collagen rations in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. In addition, Lys treatment decreased the protein productions of TNF-α and MMP-3 in stimulated cells. Our results suggest that Lys may modulate matrix proteins, inflammatory and catabolic cytokines in OA chondrocytes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

KW - Chondrocyte

KW - Hypertrophy

KW - Inflammatory cytokine

KW - l-lysine

KW - Osteoarthritis

KW - Amino acids

KW - Cartilage

KW - Collagen

KW - Glycoproteins

KW - Macrophages

KW - Proteins

KW - Tumors

KW - Chondrocytes

KW - Cytokines

KW - l-Lysine

KW - Body fluids

U2 - 10.1016/j.procbio.2016.04.009

DO - 10.1016/j.procbio.2016.04.009

M3 - Article

VL - 51

SP - 904

EP - 911

JO - Process Biochemistry

JF - Process Biochemistry

SN - 1359-5113

IS - 7

ER -