L-carnitine via PPARγ- and Sirt1-dependent mechanisms attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis caused by perfluorooctanesulfonate

Hsiu Chu Chou, Li Li Wen, Chih Cheng Chang, Chien Yu Lin, Lu Jin, Shu Hui Juan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) causes cell apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTCs). Here, we extend our findings and provide evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS and the protection by L-carnitine. Our results demonstrate that PFOS increased the expression of EMT and renal injury biomarkers (eg, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Kim1, and Lcn2). In addition, PFOS caused EMT induction through Sirt1-mediated PPARγ deacetylation and inactivation. L-carnitine reversed the EMT induction caused by PFOS and alleviated PFOS-mediated increases in cellmigration by reactivating PPARγ through the inhibition of Sirt1 activity. The critical role of Sirt1 in this process was validated by using Sirt1 overexpression, resveratrol (a pharmacologic activator of Sirt1), nicotinamide (a Sirt1 inhibitor) and siSirt1. Nicotinamide and siSirt1, but not Sirt1 overexpression and resveratrol, alleviated PFOSmediated EMT induction, suggesting that increased Sirt1 activity contributed to the alterations. Furthermore, through PPARγ overexpression and pharmacologic interventions, we validated the crucial role of increased PPARγ deacetylation caused by aberrant increased Sirt1 activity in RTC transformation. Similar to PPARγ overexpression, rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) alleviated the effects of PFOS on the EMT-related features, whereas GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist)mimicked the effects. The protective effect of L-carnitine was also verified in amousemodel of chronic PFOS exposure, in which decreased EMT biomarker levels and renal fibrosis by L-carnitine were observed inWestern blot and histological analyses. Accordingly, L-carnitine alleviated EMT-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS through a Sirt1- and PPARγ-dependentmechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-229
Number of pages13
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume160
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2017

Fingerprint

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Carnitine
Fibrosis
Kidney
Niacinamide
rosiglitazone
Biomarkers
Epithelial Cells
perfluorooctane sulfonic acid
Vimentin
Cadherins
Apoptosis

Keywords

  • Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
  • Perfluorooctanesulfonate
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
  • Renal fibrosis
  • Silent information regulator T1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

@article{a46e5e5b87d44882a1ed1c68c8bfb6e6,
title = "L-carnitine via PPARγ- and Sirt1-dependent mechanisms attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis caused by perfluorooctanesulfonate",
abstract = "We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) causes cell apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTCs). Here, we extend our findings and provide evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS and the protection by L-carnitine. Our results demonstrate that PFOS increased the expression of EMT and renal injury biomarkers (eg, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Kim1, and Lcn2). In addition, PFOS caused EMT induction through Sirt1-mediated PPARγ deacetylation and inactivation. L-carnitine reversed the EMT induction caused by PFOS and alleviated PFOS-mediated increases in cellmigration by reactivating PPARγ through the inhibition of Sirt1 activity. The critical role of Sirt1 in this process was validated by using Sirt1 overexpression, resveratrol (a pharmacologic activator of Sirt1), nicotinamide (a Sirt1 inhibitor) and siSirt1. Nicotinamide and siSirt1, but not Sirt1 overexpression and resveratrol, alleviated PFOSmediated EMT induction, suggesting that increased Sirt1 activity contributed to the alterations. Furthermore, through PPARγ overexpression and pharmacologic interventions, we validated the crucial role of increased PPARγ deacetylation caused by aberrant increased Sirt1 activity in RTC transformation. Similar to PPARγ overexpression, rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) alleviated the effects of PFOS on the EMT-related features, whereas GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist)mimicked the effects. The protective effect of L-carnitine was also verified in amousemodel of chronic PFOS exposure, in which decreased EMT biomarker levels and renal fibrosis by L-carnitine were observed inWestern blot and histological analyses. Accordingly, L-carnitine alleviated EMT-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS through a Sirt1- and PPARγ-dependentmechanism.",
keywords = "Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, Perfluorooctanesulfonate, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Renal fibrosis, Silent information regulator T1",
author = "Chou, {Hsiu Chu} and Wen, {Li Li} and Chang, {Chih Cheng} and Lin, {Chien Yu} and Lu Jin and Juan, {Shu Hui}",
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T1 - L-carnitine via PPARγ- and Sirt1-dependent mechanisms attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis caused by perfluorooctanesulfonate

AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu

AU - Wen, Li Li

AU - Chang, Chih Cheng

AU - Lin, Chien Yu

AU - Jin, Lu

AU - Juan, Shu Hui

PY - 2017/12/1

Y1 - 2017/12/1

N2 - We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) causes cell apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTCs). Here, we extend our findings and provide evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS and the protection by L-carnitine. Our results demonstrate that PFOS increased the expression of EMT and renal injury biomarkers (eg, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Kim1, and Lcn2). In addition, PFOS caused EMT induction through Sirt1-mediated PPARγ deacetylation and inactivation. L-carnitine reversed the EMT induction caused by PFOS and alleviated PFOS-mediated increases in cellmigration by reactivating PPARγ through the inhibition of Sirt1 activity. The critical role of Sirt1 in this process was validated by using Sirt1 overexpression, resveratrol (a pharmacologic activator of Sirt1), nicotinamide (a Sirt1 inhibitor) and siSirt1. Nicotinamide and siSirt1, but not Sirt1 overexpression and resveratrol, alleviated PFOSmediated EMT induction, suggesting that increased Sirt1 activity contributed to the alterations. Furthermore, through PPARγ overexpression and pharmacologic interventions, we validated the crucial role of increased PPARγ deacetylation caused by aberrant increased Sirt1 activity in RTC transformation. Similar to PPARγ overexpression, rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) alleviated the effects of PFOS on the EMT-related features, whereas GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist)mimicked the effects. The protective effect of L-carnitine was also verified in amousemodel of chronic PFOS exposure, in which decreased EMT biomarker levels and renal fibrosis by L-carnitine were observed inWestern blot and histological analyses. Accordingly, L-carnitine alleviated EMT-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS through a Sirt1- and PPARγ-dependentmechanism.

AB - We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) causes cell apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTCs). Here, we extend our findings and provide evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS and the protection by L-carnitine. Our results demonstrate that PFOS increased the expression of EMT and renal injury biomarkers (eg, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Kim1, and Lcn2). In addition, PFOS caused EMT induction through Sirt1-mediated PPARγ deacetylation and inactivation. L-carnitine reversed the EMT induction caused by PFOS and alleviated PFOS-mediated increases in cellmigration by reactivating PPARγ through the inhibition of Sirt1 activity. The critical role of Sirt1 in this process was validated by using Sirt1 overexpression, resveratrol (a pharmacologic activator of Sirt1), nicotinamide (a Sirt1 inhibitor) and siSirt1. Nicotinamide and siSirt1, but not Sirt1 overexpression and resveratrol, alleviated PFOSmediated EMT induction, suggesting that increased Sirt1 activity contributed to the alterations. Furthermore, through PPARγ overexpression and pharmacologic interventions, we validated the crucial role of increased PPARγ deacetylation caused by aberrant increased Sirt1 activity in RTC transformation. Similar to PPARγ overexpression, rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) alleviated the effects of PFOS on the EMT-related features, whereas GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist)mimicked the effects. The protective effect of L-carnitine was also verified in amousemodel of chronic PFOS exposure, in which decreased EMT biomarker levels and renal fibrosis by L-carnitine were observed inWestern blot and histological analyses. Accordingly, L-carnitine alleviated EMT-associated renal fibrosis caused by PFOS through a Sirt1- and PPARγ-dependentmechanism.

KW - Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

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KW - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

KW - Renal fibrosis

KW - Silent information regulator T1

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