Kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament during gait

Jia Lin Wu, Ali Hosseini, Michal Kozanek, Hemanth R. Gadikota, Thomas J. Gill IV, Guoan Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The function of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during gait has not been reported. Hypothesis: The AM and PL bundles have distinct functional behavior during the stance phase of treadmill gait. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Three-dimensional models of the knee were created by magnetic resonance images from 8 healthy subjects. The contour of the 2 bundle attachments were constructed on each model. Each bundle was represented by a straight line connecting its tibial and femoral attachment centroids. Next, the knee kinematics during the stance phase of gait was determined with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system. The relative elongation, sagittal plane elevation, coronal plane elevation, and transverse plane deviation of the 2 bundles were measured directly from heel strike to toe-off. Results: At heel strike, the AM and PL bundles had first peak elongation of 9% ± 7% and 9% ± 13%, respectively. At 50% progress of the stance phase, both bundles were maximally elongated, 12% ± 7% for the AM bundle and 13% ± 15% for the PL bundle. No significant difference was found for each bundle between 40% and 60% of the stance phase (P >.05). With increasing knee flexion, the sagittal plane and coronal plane elevations of the 2 bundles decreased, whereas the deviation angles increased. Conclusion: Both bundles are anisometric and function in a similar manner during the stance phase of gait. They were maximally elongated throughout the midstance where they were stretched maximally to resist anterior tibial translation. Clinical relevance: This information can be useful for further improving anatomical ACL reconstructions to better reproduce the 2 bundle functions. It may also be useful for designing postoperative rehabilitation regimens to prevent overstretch of the grafts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1475-1482
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume38
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Gait
Biomechanical Phenomena
Knee
Heel
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Toes
Thigh
Healthy Volunteers
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Rehabilitation
Transplants

Keywords

  • ACL bundles
  • anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
  • gait
  • in vivo knee kinematics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Wu, J. L., Hosseini, A., Kozanek, M., Gadikota, H. R., Gill IV, T. J., & Li, G. (2010). Kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament during gait. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(7), 1475-1482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510364240

Kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament during gait. / Wu, Jia Lin; Hosseini, Ali; Kozanek, Michal; Gadikota, Hemanth R.; Gill IV, Thomas J.; Li, Guoan.

In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 7, 07.2010, p. 1475-1482.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wu, JL, Hosseini, A, Kozanek, M, Gadikota, HR, Gill IV, TJ & Li, G 2010, 'Kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament during gait', American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1475-1482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510364240
Wu, Jia Lin ; Hosseini, Ali ; Kozanek, Michal ; Gadikota, Hemanth R. ; Gill IV, Thomas J. ; Li, Guoan. / Kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament during gait. In: American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2010 ; Vol. 38, No. 7. pp. 1475-1482.
@article{827aeffbdd1d45289a6ad60c4ebc281e,
title = "Kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament during gait",
abstract = "Background: The function of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during gait has not been reported. Hypothesis: The AM and PL bundles have distinct functional behavior during the stance phase of treadmill gait. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Three-dimensional models of the knee were created by magnetic resonance images from 8 healthy subjects. The contour of the 2 bundle attachments were constructed on each model. Each bundle was represented by a straight line connecting its tibial and femoral attachment centroids. Next, the knee kinematics during the stance phase of gait was determined with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system. The relative elongation, sagittal plane elevation, coronal plane elevation, and transverse plane deviation of the 2 bundles were measured directly from heel strike to toe-off. Results: At heel strike, the AM and PL bundles had first peak elongation of 9{\%} ± 7{\%} and 9{\%} ± 13{\%}, respectively. At 50{\%} progress of the stance phase, both bundles were maximally elongated, 12{\%} ± 7{\%} for the AM bundle and 13{\%} ± 15{\%} for the PL bundle. No significant difference was found for each bundle between 40{\%} and 60{\%} of the stance phase (P >.05). With increasing knee flexion, the sagittal plane and coronal plane elevations of the 2 bundles decreased, whereas the deviation angles increased. Conclusion: Both bundles are anisometric and function in a similar manner during the stance phase of gait. They were maximally elongated throughout the midstance where they were stretched maximally to resist anterior tibial translation. Clinical relevance: This information can be useful for further improving anatomical ACL reconstructions to better reproduce the 2 bundle functions. It may also be useful for designing postoperative rehabilitation regimens to prevent overstretch of the grafts.",
keywords = "ACL bundles, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), gait, in vivo knee kinematics",
author = "Wu, {Jia Lin} and Ali Hosseini and Michal Kozanek and Gadikota, {Hemanth R.} and {Gill IV}, {Thomas J.} and Guoan Li",
year = "2010",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1177/0363546510364240",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "1475--1482",
journal = "American Journal of Sports Medicine",
issn = "0363-5465",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament during gait

AU - Wu, Jia Lin

AU - Hosseini, Ali

AU - Kozanek, Michal

AU - Gadikota, Hemanth R.

AU - Gill IV, Thomas J.

AU - Li, Guoan

PY - 2010/7

Y1 - 2010/7

N2 - Background: The function of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during gait has not been reported. Hypothesis: The AM and PL bundles have distinct functional behavior during the stance phase of treadmill gait. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Three-dimensional models of the knee were created by magnetic resonance images from 8 healthy subjects. The contour of the 2 bundle attachments were constructed on each model. Each bundle was represented by a straight line connecting its tibial and femoral attachment centroids. Next, the knee kinematics during the stance phase of gait was determined with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system. The relative elongation, sagittal plane elevation, coronal plane elevation, and transverse plane deviation of the 2 bundles were measured directly from heel strike to toe-off. Results: At heel strike, the AM and PL bundles had first peak elongation of 9% ± 7% and 9% ± 13%, respectively. At 50% progress of the stance phase, both bundles were maximally elongated, 12% ± 7% for the AM bundle and 13% ± 15% for the PL bundle. No significant difference was found for each bundle between 40% and 60% of the stance phase (P >.05). With increasing knee flexion, the sagittal plane and coronal plane elevations of the 2 bundles decreased, whereas the deviation angles increased. Conclusion: Both bundles are anisometric and function in a similar manner during the stance phase of gait. They were maximally elongated throughout the midstance where they were stretched maximally to resist anterior tibial translation. Clinical relevance: This information can be useful for further improving anatomical ACL reconstructions to better reproduce the 2 bundle functions. It may also be useful for designing postoperative rehabilitation regimens to prevent overstretch of the grafts.

AB - Background: The function of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during gait has not been reported. Hypothesis: The AM and PL bundles have distinct functional behavior during the stance phase of treadmill gait. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Three-dimensional models of the knee were created by magnetic resonance images from 8 healthy subjects. The contour of the 2 bundle attachments were constructed on each model. Each bundle was represented by a straight line connecting its tibial and femoral attachment centroids. Next, the knee kinematics during the stance phase of gait was determined with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system. The relative elongation, sagittal plane elevation, coronal plane elevation, and transverse plane deviation of the 2 bundles were measured directly from heel strike to toe-off. Results: At heel strike, the AM and PL bundles had first peak elongation of 9% ± 7% and 9% ± 13%, respectively. At 50% progress of the stance phase, both bundles were maximally elongated, 12% ± 7% for the AM bundle and 13% ± 15% for the PL bundle. No significant difference was found for each bundle between 40% and 60% of the stance phase (P >.05). With increasing knee flexion, the sagittal plane and coronal plane elevations of the 2 bundles decreased, whereas the deviation angles increased. Conclusion: Both bundles are anisometric and function in a similar manner during the stance phase of gait. They were maximally elongated throughout the midstance where they were stretched maximally to resist anterior tibial translation. Clinical relevance: This information can be useful for further improving anatomical ACL reconstructions to better reproduce the 2 bundle functions. It may also be useful for designing postoperative rehabilitation regimens to prevent overstretch of the grafts.

KW - ACL bundles

KW - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

KW - gait

KW - in vivo knee kinematics

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954337202&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77954337202&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0363546510364240

DO - 10.1177/0363546510364240

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 1475

EP - 1482

JO - American Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - American Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0363-5465

IS - 7

ER -