Isolated Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia Differs from Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia with Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Prevalence, Risk Factors and Outcomes in Preterm Infants

Lan Wan Wang, Yung Chieh Lin, Yi Fang Tu, Shan Tair Wang, Chao Ching Huang

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) is the most severe white matter injury and is often associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes of isolated cPVL and cPVL with low-grade and high-grade IVH in premature infants. Methods: From 2001 to 2012, 9,964 infants with <31 weeks' gestational age (GA) admitted to Taiwan hospitals were enrolled. cPVL was classified into three groups: isolated cPVL, cPVL with low-grade (I/II) IVH, and cPVL with high-grade (III) IVH. Results: Of 7,805 infants with complete ultrasound data, 286 (3.7%) had cPVL. Among the cPVL infants, 93 (32.5%) were isolated, 118 (41.3%) had low-grade IVH and 75 (26.2%) had high-grade IVH. The risk of cPVL with IVH was significantly higher among infants with <27 weeks' GA than those with ≥27 weeks' GA, in contrast to that of isolated cPVL. Using infants without cPVL and IVH as the reference group, the most significant predictor of isolated cPVL was neonatal sepsis (odds ratio 2.39; 95% confidence interval 1.52-3.77), while 5-min Apgar score <5 (2.50; 1.48-4.21) and prolonged mechanical ventilation (2.19; 1.42-3.42) were associated with cPVL with low-grade IVH, and GA <27 weeks (2.63; 1.56-4.42), pneumothorax (3.04; 1.40-6.65) and prolonged mechanical ventilation (3.36; 1.88-6.01) contributed to cPVL with high-grade IVH. cPVL infants with low-grade and high-grade IVH had a higher risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes than infants with isolated cPVL at the age of 24 months. Conclusions: Isolated cPVL, cPVL with low-grade IVH and cPVL with high-grade IVH had different risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes, suggestive of different causal pathways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-92
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2016



  • Cystic periventricular leukomalacia
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Premature infants
  • Risk factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Biology

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