Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) plays a pivotal role in mediating agonist-induced arachidonic acid release for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis during stimulation with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, the mechanisms underlying IL-1β-induced cPLA2 expression and PGE2 synthesis by canine tracheal smooth muscle cells (CTSMCs) have not been defined. IL-1β induced cPLA2 protein and mRNA expression, PGE2 production, and phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK (ATF2), and JNK (c-Jun) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, determined by Western blotting, RT-PCR, and ELISA, which was attenuated by the inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), and JNK (SP600125), or transfection with dominant negative mutants of MEK1/2, p38, and JNK, respectively. Furthermore, IL-1β-induced cPLA2 expression and PGE2 synthesis was inhibited by a selective NF-κB inhibitor (helenalin) or transfection with dominant negative mutants of NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), IκB kinase (IKK)-α, and IKK-β. Consistently, IL-1β stimulated both IκB-α degradation and NF-κB translocation into nucleus in these cells. NF-κB translocation was blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126, SB202190, and SP600125. MAPKs together with NF-κB-activated p300 recruited to cPLA2 promoter thus facilitating the binding of NF-κB to cPLA2 promoter region and expression of cPLA2 mRNA. IL-1β-induced cPLA2 expression and PGE2 production was inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating the involvement of transcriptional and translational events in these responses. These results suggest that in CTSMCs, IL-1β-induced cPLA2 expression and PGE2 synthesis was independently mediated through activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways and was connected to p300 recruitment and activation.
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