To track penicillin susceptibility among Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive diseases and to evaluate risk factors for antibiotic resistance. A retrospective study was performed in a medical center of all patients with invasive pneumococcal infections based on positive microbiological findings, confirmed by appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. MICs of penicillin and ceftriaxone were determined and interpreted by NCCLS methodology. Fifty-three episodes of invasive S. pneumoniae infections (ISPI) among 22 children and 31 adults were identified. The disease patterns of ISPI were similar between children and adults, and the most common modes were pneumonia (70%) and primary bacteremia (23%). The rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from pediatric patients was higher than that in adult patients (95.5% vs. 54.8%, P <0.001). This finding was correlated to prior antibiotic use that was more common in children (36.4%) than in adults (18.9%). The rate of penicillin-resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates (PRSP) was extremely high in this area: 45.5% from pediatric patients and 41.9% from adult patients. More adults (90.3%) with ISPI had major underlying diseases than children (4.5%). This may explain why adult patients tended to run an unfavorable outcome (mortality rate, 51.6% and 4.5% in adults and children, respectively), although most of the cases with empyema were children. None of the patients enrolled in this study received pneumococcal vaccination. We suggest that vaccines be administered for young children and the elderly with major underlying diseases to prevent ISPI.