Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen leads to inflammation and acute lung injury, which is similar to human bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In premature infants, BPD is a major complication despite early use of surfactant therapy, optimal ventilation strategies, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Because pulmonary inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of BPD, corticosteroid use is one potential treatment to prevent it. Nevertheless, systemic corticosteroid treatment is not usually recommended for preterm infants due to long-term adverse effects. Preclinical studies and human phase I clinical trials demonstrated that use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in hyperoxia-induced lung injuries and in preterm infants is safe and feasible. Intratracheal and intravenous MSC transplantation has been shown to protect against neonatal hyperoxic lung injury. Therefore, intratracheal administration of stem cells and combined surfactant and glucocorticoid treatment has emerged as a new strategy to treat newborns with respiratory disorders. The developmental stage of rat lungs at birth is equivalent to that in human lungs at 26−28 week of gestation. Hence, newborn rats are appropriate for studying intratracheal administration to preterm infants with respiratory distress to evaluate its efficacy. This intratracheal instillation technique is a clinically viable option for delivery of stem cells and drugs into the lungs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere61117
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number159
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • Hyperoxia
  • Intratracheal instillation
  • Issue 159
  • Medicine
  • Neonatal rats
  • Respiratory disease
  • Stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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