Interleukin-10 protects lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity in primary midbrain cultures by inhibiting the function of NADPH oxidase

Li Qian, Michelle L. Block, Sung Jen Wei, Chiou Feng Lin, Jeffrey Reece, Hao Pang, Belinda Wilson, Jau Shyong Hong, Patrick M. Flood

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The role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in Parkinson's disease is not completely understood. In this study, using mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that both pretreatment and post-treatment of rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures with interleukin (IL)-10, a natural immune modulator, reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DA neurotoxicity. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying IL-10-elicited neuroprotection. IL-10 significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and extracellular superoxide in microglia cells. In addition, using reconstituted neuron and glia cell cultures, IL-10 was shown to be neuroprotective only in the presence of microglia. More importantly, IL-10 failed to protect DA neurons in cultures from mice lacking NADPH oxidase (PHOX), a key enzyme for extracellular superoxide production in immune cells, suggesting the critical role of PHOX in IL-10 neuroprotection. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that IL-10 inhibited LPS-induced translocation of the cytosolic subunit of NADPH oxidase p47 phox to the membrane. When the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) 1 signaling pathway was blocked, IL-10 failed to attenuate LPS-induced superoxide production, indicating that the JAK1 signaling cascade mediates the inhibitory effect of IL-10. Together, our results suggest that IL-10 inhibits LPS-induced DA neurotoxicity through the inhibition of PHOX activity in a JAK1-dependent mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-52
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

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