Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) and its nanoparticulate formulation induce apoptosis in cancer cells, oppose angiogenesis about xenografted human tumors and block cancer cell repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. These nongenomic actions of tetrac are initiated at a tetrac-thyroid hormone receptor on plasma membrane integrin avb3. In this review, we examine additional anti-cancer activities of tetrac formulations at avb3 and what is known about their mechanisms. These activities include 1) reversal of cancer cell chemoresistance (= induction of chemosensitization) and 2) disruption of crosstalk between avb3 and nearby cell surface growth factor receptors. In addition, nanoparticulate tetrac 3) alters expression of differentially-regulated inflammation-relevant genes that may be important to inflammation-supported cancer. For example, the agent downregulates genes whose products mediate cytokine responses and upregulates suppressor of cytokine signaling, SOCS4. Such actions of tetrac formulations define a multi-target functional profile, although the activities of tetrac begin at a single anatomic plasma membrane receptor on integrin avb3.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Cancer and Clinical Oncology|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|