Influence of rotating shifts and fixed night shifts on sleep quality of nurses of different ages: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Wen Pei Chang, Yu Xuan Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The objective of this study was to understand the influence of rotating shifts and fixed night shifts on the sleep quality of nurses using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis and to determine whether the sleep quality of nurses working rotating shifts or fixed night shifts differs from that of nurses working fixed day shifts. We conducted a meta-analysis on literature that had used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to gauge sleep quality and had been published between 2000 and 2020 in the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases. This study was conducted in accordance with PRISMA, and the quality of the literature was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross Sectional Studies. CMA 3.0 was employed for data analysis, and meta-regression analysis was conducted to examine the differences between the PSQI scores of nurses working fixed day shifts and those working rotating shifts or fixed night shifts. Following assessment, a total of 29 papers (34 items of data) were analyzed. The papers included a total of 3,935 nurses who worked fixed day shifts, 3,777 nurses who worked rotating shifts, and 1,559 nurses who worked fixed night shifts. Our subgroup analysis indicated that the sleep quality of nurses working rotating shifts was poorer than the sleep quality of nurses working fixed day shifts; the standardized mean difference (SMD) was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.24–0.52, p< .001), and the meta-regression analysis found that the difference in sleep quality between nurses over 40 years old working rotating shifts and those working fixed day shifts was significantly smaller than the difference in sleep quality between nurses 40 years old or younger working rotating shifts and those working fixed day shifts (β = −0.368, p= .011). The sleep quality of nurses working fixed night shifts was also poorer than the sleep quality of nurses working fixed day shifts; the SMD was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.38–0.78, p< .001), and the meta-regression analysis revealed that the difference in sleep quality between nurses over 40 years old working fixed night shifts and those working fixed day shifts was not significantly different from the difference in sleep quality between nurses 40 years old or younger working fixed night shifts and those working fixed day shifts (β = −0.118, p= .608). This meta-analysis found that both nurses working rotating shifts and those working fixed night shifts had poorer sleep quality than those working fixed day shifts and that age influenced the difference in sleep quality only between nurses working rotating shifts and those working fixed day shifts; the difference in sleep quality between nurses 40 years old or younger working rotating shifts and those working fixed day shifts was greater than the difference in sleep quality between nurses over 40 years old working rotating shifts and those working fixed day shifts.

Original languageEnglish
JournalChronobiology International
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • fixed day shift
  • fixed night shift
  • Nurse
  • rotating shift
  • sleep quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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