Influence of caramel and molasses addition on acrylamide and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural formation and sensory characteristics of non-centrifugal cane sugar during manufacturing

Wen-Chieh Sung, Ming-Hsuan Chi, Tai-Ying Chiou, Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Wei-Ju Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study are to (i) evaluate the effects of color enhancers, caramel (C) and molasses (M), on acrylamide and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) formation in non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) and to (ii) perform nine-point hedonic scale and evaluation of sensory attributes, encompassing the appearance, flavor, texture and aftertaste, by 71 consumers on NCS, NCS_C, and NCS products made with a blend of molasses and sugar (NCS_MS) and steam processing (NCS_S).

RESULTS: With the addition of molasses and caramel at the maximum allowable level of 5 g kg -1 in sugarcane juice, significantly greater acrylamide or HMF did not accumulate in NCS_C and NCS_M during the thermal manufacturing process, while color values of NCS_C significantly changed (P < 0.05). The increases in acrylamide and HMF contents were influenced by pH because they were produced by the Maillard reaction. Hedonic responses showed that NCS_MS was rated with the highest score for overall acceptance, whereas NCS_S, with the lowest content of acrylamide, exhibited the lowest score for every attribute. In addition, the appearance acceptance score of NCS_C was significantly higher than that of NCS (P < 0.05). Significant differences were also found between NCS and NCS_C in the frequency of 9 of 16 items with which consumers selected to characterize the appearance in a check-all-that-apply questionnaire (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The association between hedonic evaluations and sensory profiles in visual attributes of NCS_C indicated that caramel could be a promising addition in Maillard reaction-mitigated NCS products to improve consumer preferences through color strengthening without safety concerns. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Early online dateMay 14 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 14 2020

Keywords

  • 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural
  • acrylamide
  • caramel
  • molasses
  • non-centrifugal cane sugar
  • sensory evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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