Vinyl chloride (VC) is a noninfective occupational risk factor. It is found in industrial chemicals, volatile organic compounds, cigarette smoke ingredients, etc. It is a kind of toxic gas that causes many diseases. VC exposure causes an increased risk of liver fibrosis and can result in angiosarcoma of the liver. Previous studies have shown that high-doses of VC exposure in mice resulted in acute death with marked tubular necrosis of the renal cortex. In this study, we assessed the nephrotoxicity of VC in vitro and in vivo. As a result, we demonstrated that VC induced fibrosis-associated protein expression, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and collagen 1, and autophagy-associated protein expression, such as Beclin 1 and LC3-II, in kidney cells. The beclin1 siRNA experiments found that autophagy inhibited VC-induced fibrosis. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were increased after VC treatment. Furthermore, VC caused glomerulosclerosis and tubular injury in mouse kidney tissues. Kidney tissue sections showed that VC induced fibrosis and autophagy in mouse kidney tissues. In summary, the results of VC-induced fibrosis suggest that autophagy plays an important role in kidney damage. VC may cause nephrotoxicity, and the results illustrate the importance of considering the toxicological hazards of VC in kidney cells.