The therapeutic effects of both cytokine-secreting tumor vaccine and DNA vaccine were studied using mouse MBT-2 bladder cancer cells as a model. Cytokine-secreting MBT-2 cells were obtained by infecting cells with retroviral particles containing interleukin (IL) 2-, IL-4-, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expression vector. The MBT-2-IL-2 cells were not tumorigenic in syngenic C3H mice at all. Tumor formation decreased significantly for the MBT-2-GM-CSF cells. MBT-2-IL-2, -IL-4, and -GM-CSF cells were killed by irradiation and tested as tumor vaccines. The irradiated MBT2-IL-2 cells could complete protect mice from the growth of the preexisting tumor cells, and the immune memory lasted for 8 months. On the other hand, irradiated MBT-2-IL-4 and MBT-2-GM-CSF cells were less effective. When the loading tumor mass increased, all tumor vaccines lost protective effects. DNA vaccine encoding the tumor antigen neu was additionally tested to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Coinjection of 60 μg pSV-neu DNA was effective in enhancing the antitumor effects of MBT2-IL-2; however, DNA vaccine alone cannot prevent the progression of the preexisting tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor infiltrate revealed massive increase of CD4+ lymphoid cells in the group of mice treated with both DNA vaccine and IL-2-secreted tumor vaccine. Western blotting demonstrated the presence of anti-neu antibody in the serum from immunized mice. In contrast, combination of DNA vaccine and MBT-2-GM-CSF has no additive effect. The results indicate the combination of DNA vaccine and IL-2-secreting tumor vaccine can additionally improve therapeutic efficacy, and the efficacy is correlated with the increase of CD4+ T lymphocytes and anti-neu antibody.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Clinical Cancer Research|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research