Increased serum interleukin-17 and peripheral Th17 cells in children with acute Henoch-Schönlein purpura

Hsiao-Yu Jen, Ya-Hui Chuang, Sheng-Chieh Lin, Bor-Luen Chiang, Yao-Hsu Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Interleukin (IL)-17 and Th17 cells have been involved in many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of IL-17 and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of childhood Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). Methods: Serum and supernatant levels of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using intracellular staining, the frequency of peripheral Th17 and Th1 cells was studied by flow cytometry. Results: Children with acute HSP had significantly higher serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β than healthy controls. The IL-17 levels in culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibody stimulation were much higher in patients with HSP (281.2±91.4 vs. 47.7±22.6pg/ml, p=0.022). The patients also had more Th17 cells (1.67±0.36% vs. 0.71±0.15%, p=0.033) but not Th1 cells in peripheral blood. Moreover, IL-17 could promote human endothelial cells to produce chemoattractants IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Conclusion: The increased frequency of peripheral Th17 cells and serum IL-17 levels are shown in childhood HSP that may in part contribute to vascular inflammation, suggesting cellular immunity is likely to be involved in the process of HSP. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)862-868
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Allergy and Immunology
Volume22
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Th17 Cells
Schoenlein-Henoch Purpura
Interleukin-17
Serum
Th1 Cells
Chemokine CCL2
Chemotactic Factors
Transforming Growth Factors
Nuclear Family
Interleukin-8
Chemokines
Cellular Immunity
Autoimmune Diseases
Blood Vessels
Interleukin-6
Blood Cells
Flow Cytometry
Endothelial Cells
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Staining and Labeling

Keywords

  • Childhood
  • Henoch-Schönlein purpura
  • Interleukin 17
  • Th17 cells
  • CD28 antigen
  • CD3 antigen
  • interleukin 17
  • interleukin 23
  • interleukin 6
  • interleukin 8
  • monocyte chemotactic protein 1
  • transforming growth factor beta
  • anaphylactoid purpura
  • article
  • blood level
  • cellular immunity
  • child
  • clinical article
  • controlled study
  • cytokine production
  • endothelium cell
  • enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
  • female
  • flow cytometry
  • human
  • human cell
  • inflammation
  • male
  • pathogenesis
  • peripheral blood mononuclear cell
  • priority journal
  • supernatant
  • Th1 cell
  • Th17 cell
  • Acute Disease
  • Adolescent
  • Cell Separation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Endothelial Cells
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Interleukin-17
  • Interleukin-6
  • Male
  • Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch
  • Th1 Cells
  • Th17 Cells
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta

Cite this

Increased serum interleukin-17 and peripheral Th17 cells in children with acute Henoch-Schönlein purpura. / Jen, Hsiao-Yu; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yang, Yao-Hsu.

In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Vol. 22, No. 8, 2011, p. 862-868.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jen, Hsiao-Yu ; Chuang, Ya-Hui ; Lin, Sheng-Chieh ; Chiang, Bor-Luen ; Yang, Yao-Hsu. / Increased serum interleukin-17 and peripheral Th17 cells in children with acute Henoch-Schönlein purpura. In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2011 ; Vol. 22, No. 8. pp. 862-868.
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title = "Increased serum interleukin-17 and peripheral Th17 cells in children with acute Henoch-Sch{\"o}nlein purpura",
abstract = "Background: Interleukin (IL)-17 and Th17 cells have been involved in many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of IL-17 and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of childhood Henoch-Sch{\"o}nlein purpura (HSP). Methods: Serum and supernatant levels of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using intracellular staining, the frequency of peripheral Th17 and Th1 cells was studied by flow cytometry. Results: Children with acute HSP had significantly higher serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β than healthy controls. The IL-17 levels in culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibody stimulation were much higher in patients with HSP (281.2±91.4 vs. 47.7±22.6pg/ml, p=0.022). The patients also had more Th17 cells (1.67±0.36{\%} vs. 0.71±0.15{\%}, p=0.033) but not Th1 cells in peripheral blood. Moreover, IL-17 could promote human endothelial cells to produce chemoattractants IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Conclusion: The increased frequency of peripheral Th17 cells and serum IL-17 levels are shown in childhood HSP that may in part contribute to vascular inflammation, suggesting cellular immunity is likely to be involved in the process of HSP. {\circledC} 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.",
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author = "Hsiao-Yu Jen and Ya-Hui Chuang and Sheng-Chieh Lin and Bor-Luen Chiang and Yao-Hsu Yang",
note = "被引用次數:12 Export Date: 7 April 2016 CODEN: PALUE 通訊地址: Jen, H.-Y.; Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan; 電子郵件: yan0126@ms15.hinet.net 化學物質/CAS: interleukin 8, 114308-91-7; Chemokine CCL2; Interleukin-17; Interleukin-6; Transforming Growth Factor beta 參考文獻: Yang, Y.H., Hung, C.F., Hsu, C.R., A nationwide survey on epidemiological characteristics of childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura in Taiwan (2005) Rheumatology (Oxford), 44, pp. 618-622; Gardner-Medwin, J.M., Dolezalova, P., Cummins, C., Southwood, T.R., Incidence of Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Kawasaki disease, and rare vasculitides in children of different ethnic origins (2002) Lancet, 360, pp. 1197-1202; Yang, Y.H., Chuang, Y.H., Wang, L.C., Huang, H.Y., Gershwin, M.E., Chiang, B.L., The immunobiology of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2008) Autoimmun Rev, 7, pp. 179-184; Saulsbury, F.T., Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children. Report of 100 patients and review of the literature (1999) Medicine (Baltimore), 78, pp. 395-409; Yang, Y.H., Wang, S.J., Chuang, Y.H., Lin, Y.T., Chiang, B.L., The level of IgA antibodies to human umbilical vein endothelial cells can be enhanced by TNF-alpha treatment in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2002) Clin Exp Immunol, 130, pp. 352-357; Besbas, N., Saatci, U., Ruacan, S., The role of cytokines in Henoch Schonlein purpura (1997) Scand J Rheumatol, 26, pp. 456-460; Lin, C.Y., Yang, Y.H., Lee, C.C., Huang, C.L., Wang, L.C., Chiang, B.L., Thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 levels in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2006) J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 39, pp. 476-482; Yang, Y.H., Huang, Y.H., Lin, Y.L., Circulating IgA from acute stage of childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura can enhance endothelial interleukin (IL)-8 production through MEK/ERK signalling pathway (2006) Clin Exp Immunol, 144, pp. 247-253; Onishi, R.M., Gaffen, S.L., Interleukin-17 and its target genes: mechanisms of interleukin-17 function in disease (2010) Immunology, 129, pp. 311-321; Gaffen, S.L., The role of interleukin-17 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (2009) Curr Rheumatol Rep, 11, pp. 365-370; Nalbandian, A., Crispin, J.C., Tsokos, G.C., Interleukin-17 and systemic lupus erythematosus: current concepts (2009) Clin Exp Immunol, 157, pp. 209-215; Graber, J.J., Allie, S.R., Mullen, K.M., Interleukin-17 in transverse myelitis and multiple sclerosis (2008) J Neuroimmunol, 196, pp. 124-132; Fujino, S., Andoh, A., Bamba, S., Increased expression of interleukin 17 in inflammatory bowel disease (2003) Gut, 52, pp. 65-70; Ouyang, W., Kolls, J.K., Zheng, Y., The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation (2008) Immunity, 28, pp. 454-467; Bettelli, E., Korn, T., Kuchroo, V.K., Th17: the third member of the effector T cell trilogy (2007) Curr Opin Immunol, 19, pp. 652-657; Oukka, M., Th17 cells in immunity and autoimmunity (2008) Ann Rheum Dis, 67 (SUPPL. 3), pp. iii26-iii29; Yang, Y.H., Huang, M.T., Lin, S.C., Lin, Y.T., Tsai, M.J., Chiang, B.L., Increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-secreting T cells and IgA anti-cardiolipin antibody levels during acute stage of childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2000) Clin Exp Immunol, 122, pp. 285-290; Yang, Y.H., Lai, H.J., Kao, C.K., Lin, Y.T., Chiang, B.L., The association between transforming growth factor-beta gene promoter C-509T polymorphism and Chinese children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2004) Pediatr Nephrol, 19, pp. 972-975; Ozen, S., Pistorio, A., Iusan, S.M., EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for Henoch-Schonlein purpura, childhood polyarteritis nodosa, childhood Wegener granulomatosis and childhood Takayasu arteritis: Ankara 2008. Part II: Final classification criteria (2010) Ann Rheum Dis, 69, pp. 798-806; Novak, J., Moldoveanu, Z., Renfrow, M.B., IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis: aberrant glycosylation of IgA1, formation of IgA1-containing immune complexes, and activation of mesangial cells (2007) Contrib Nephrol, 157, pp. 134-138; Riddell, S.R., Greenberg, P.D., The use of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies to clone and expand human antigen-specific T cells (1990) J Immunol Methods, 128, pp. 189-201; Rasmussen, T.K., Andersen, T., Hvid, M., Increased interleukin 21 (IL-21) and IL-23 are associated with increased disease activity and with radiographic status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (2010) J Rheumatol, 37, pp. 2014-2020; Renno, T., Krakowski, M., Piccirillo, C., Lin, J.Y., Owens, T., TNF-alpha expression by resident microglia and infiltrating leukocytes in the central nervous system of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Regulation by Th1 cytokines (1995) J Immunol, 154, pp. 944-953; Pettinelli, C.B., McFarlin, D.E., Adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice after in vitro activation of lymph node cells by myelin basic protein: requirement for Lyt 1+ 2- T lymphocytes (1981) J Immunol, 127, pp. 1420-1423; Damsker, J.M., Hansen, A.M., Caspi, R.R., Th1 and Th17 cells: adversaries and collaborators (2010) Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1183, pp. 211-221; Cines, D.B., Pollak, E.S., Buck, C.A., Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders (1998) Blood, 91, pp. 3527-3561; Roussel, L., Houle, F., Chan, C., IL-17 promotes p38 MAPK-dependent endothelial activation enhancing neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation (2010) J Immunol, 184, pp. 4531-4537; Silva, A.R., De Assis, E.F., Caiado, L.F., Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and 5-lipoxygenase products recruit leukocytes in response to platelet-activating factor-like lipids in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (2002) J Immunol, 168, pp. 4112-4120; Reichel, C.A., Rehberg, M., Lerchenberger, M., Ccl2 and Ccl3 mediate neutrophil recruitment via induction of protein synthesis and generation of lipid mediators (2009) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 29, pp. 1787-1793; Yadav, A., Saini, V., Arora, S., MCP-1: chemoattractant with a role beyond immunity: a review (2010) Clin Chim Acta, 411, pp. 1570-1579",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01198.x",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "862--868",
journal = "Pediatric Allergy and Immunology",
issn = "0905-6157",
publisher = "Blackwell Munksgaard",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Increased serum interleukin-17 and peripheral Th17 cells in children with acute Henoch-Schönlein purpura

AU - Jen, Hsiao-Yu

AU - Chuang, Ya-Hui

AU - Lin, Sheng-Chieh

AU - Chiang, Bor-Luen

AU - Yang, Yao-Hsu

N1 - 被引用次數:12 Export Date: 7 April 2016 CODEN: PALUE 通訊地址: Jen, H.-Y.; Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan; 電子郵件: yan0126@ms15.hinet.net 化學物質/CAS: interleukin 8, 114308-91-7; Chemokine CCL2; Interleukin-17; Interleukin-6; Transforming Growth Factor beta 參考文獻: Yang, Y.H., Hung, C.F., Hsu, C.R., A nationwide survey on epidemiological characteristics of childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura in Taiwan (2005) Rheumatology (Oxford), 44, pp. 618-622; Gardner-Medwin, J.M., Dolezalova, P., Cummins, C., Southwood, T.R., Incidence of Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Kawasaki disease, and rare vasculitides in children of different ethnic origins (2002) Lancet, 360, pp. 1197-1202; Yang, Y.H., Chuang, Y.H., Wang, L.C., Huang, H.Y., Gershwin, M.E., Chiang, B.L., The immunobiology of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2008) Autoimmun Rev, 7, pp. 179-184; Saulsbury, F.T., Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children. Report of 100 patients and review of the literature (1999) Medicine (Baltimore), 78, pp. 395-409; Yang, Y.H., Wang, S.J., Chuang, Y.H., Lin, Y.T., Chiang, B.L., The level of IgA antibodies to human umbilical vein endothelial cells can be enhanced by TNF-alpha treatment in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2002) Clin Exp Immunol, 130, pp. 352-357; Besbas, N., Saatci, U., Ruacan, S., The role of cytokines in Henoch Schonlein purpura (1997) Scand J Rheumatol, 26, pp. 456-460; Lin, C.Y., Yang, Y.H., Lee, C.C., Huang, C.L., Wang, L.C., Chiang, B.L., Thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 levels in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2006) J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 39, pp. 476-482; Yang, Y.H., Huang, Y.H., Lin, Y.L., Circulating IgA from acute stage of childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura can enhance endothelial interleukin (IL)-8 production through MEK/ERK signalling pathway (2006) Clin Exp Immunol, 144, pp. 247-253; Onishi, R.M., Gaffen, S.L., Interleukin-17 and its target genes: mechanisms of interleukin-17 function in disease (2010) Immunology, 129, pp. 311-321; Gaffen, S.L., The role of interleukin-17 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (2009) Curr Rheumatol Rep, 11, pp. 365-370; Nalbandian, A., Crispin, J.C., Tsokos, G.C., Interleukin-17 and systemic lupus erythematosus: current concepts (2009) Clin Exp Immunol, 157, pp. 209-215; Graber, J.J., Allie, S.R., Mullen, K.M., Interleukin-17 in transverse myelitis and multiple sclerosis (2008) J Neuroimmunol, 196, pp. 124-132; Fujino, S., Andoh, A., Bamba, S., Increased expression of interleukin 17 in inflammatory bowel disease (2003) Gut, 52, pp. 65-70; Ouyang, W., Kolls, J.K., Zheng, Y., The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation (2008) Immunity, 28, pp. 454-467; Bettelli, E., Korn, T., Kuchroo, V.K., Th17: the third member of the effector T cell trilogy (2007) Curr Opin Immunol, 19, pp. 652-657; Oukka, M., Th17 cells in immunity and autoimmunity (2008) Ann Rheum Dis, 67 (SUPPL. 3), pp. iii26-iii29; Yang, Y.H., Huang, M.T., Lin, S.C., Lin, Y.T., Tsai, M.J., Chiang, B.L., Increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-secreting T cells and IgA anti-cardiolipin antibody levels during acute stage of childhood Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2000) Clin Exp Immunol, 122, pp. 285-290; Yang, Y.H., Lai, H.J., Kao, C.K., Lin, Y.T., Chiang, B.L., The association between transforming growth factor-beta gene promoter C-509T polymorphism and Chinese children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (2004) Pediatr Nephrol, 19, pp. 972-975; Ozen, S., Pistorio, A., Iusan, S.M., EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for Henoch-Schonlein purpura, childhood polyarteritis nodosa, childhood Wegener granulomatosis and childhood Takayasu arteritis: Ankara 2008. Part II: Final classification criteria (2010) Ann Rheum Dis, 69, pp. 798-806; Novak, J., Moldoveanu, Z., Renfrow, M.B., IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis: aberrant glycosylation of IgA1, formation of IgA1-containing immune complexes, and activation of mesangial cells (2007) Contrib Nephrol, 157, pp. 134-138; Riddell, S.R., Greenberg, P.D., The use of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies to clone and expand human antigen-specific T cells (1990) J Immunol Methods, 128, pp. 189-201; Rasmussen, T.K., Andersen, T., Hvid, M., Increased interleukin 21 (IL-21) and IL-23 are associated with increased disease activity and with radiographic status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (2010) J Rheumatol, 37, pp. 2014-2020; Renno, T., Krakowski, M., Piccirillo, C., Lin, J.Y., Owens, T., TNF-alpha expression by resident microglia and infiltrating leukocytes in the central nervous system of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Regulation by Th1 cytokines (1995) J Immunol, 154, pp. 944-953; Pettinelli, C.B., McFarlin, D.E., Adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice after in vitro activation of lymph node cells by myelin basic protein: requirement for Lyt 1+ 2- T lymphocytes (1981) J Immunol, 127, pp. 1420-1423; Damsker, J.M., Hansen, A.M., Caspi, R.R., Th1 and Th17 cells: adversaries and collaborators (2010) Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1183, pp. 211-221; Cines, D.B., Pollak, E.S., Buck, C.A., Endothelial cells in physiology and in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders (1998) Blood, 91, pp. 3527-3561; Roussel, L., Houle, F., Chan, C., IL-17 promotes p38 MAPK-dependent endothelial activation enhancing neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation (2010) J Immunol, 184, pp. 4531-4537; Silva, A.R., De Assis, E.F., Caiado, L.F., Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and 5-lipoxygenase products recruit leukocytes in response to platelet-activating factor-like lipids in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (2002) J Immunol, 168, pp. 4112-4120; Reichel, C.A., Rehberg, M., Lerchenberger, M., Ccl2 and Ccl3 mediate neutrophil recruitment via induction of protein synthesis and generation of lipid mediators (2009) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 29, pp. 1787-1793; Yadav, A., Saini, V., Arora, S., MCP-1: chemoattractant with a role beyond immunity: a review (2010) Clin Chim Acta, 411, pp. 1570-1579

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Background: Interleukin (IL)-17 and Th17 cells have been involved in many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of IL-17 and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of childhood Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). Methods: Serum and supernatant levels of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using intracellular staining, the frequency of peripheral Th17 and Th1 cells was studied by flow cytometry. Results: Children with acute HSP had significantly higher serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β than healthy controls. The IL-17 levels in culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibody stimulation were much higher in patients with HSP (281.2±91.4 vs. 47.7±22.6pg/ml, p=0.022). The patients also had more Th17 cells (1.67±0.36% vs. 0.71±0.15%, p=0.033) but not Th1 cells in peripheral blood. Moreover, IL-17 could promote human endothelial cells to produce chemoattractants IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Conclusion: The increased frequency of peripheral Th17 cells and serum IL-17 levels are shown in childhood HSP that may in part contribute to vascular inflammation, suggesting cellular immunity is likely to be involved in the process of HSP. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

AB - Background: Interleukin (IL)-17 and Th17 cells have been involved in many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of IL-17 and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of childhood Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). Methods: Serum and supernatant levels of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using intracellular staining, the frequency of peripheral Th17 and Th1 cells was studied by flow cytometry. Results: Children with acute HSP had significantly higher serum levels of IL-17, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β than healthy controls. The IL-17 levels in culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with anti-CD3 and CD28 antibody stimulation were much higher in patients with HSP (281.2±91.4 vs. 47.7±22.6pg/ml, p=0.022). The patients also had more Th17 cells (1.67±0.36% vs. 0.71±0.15%, p=0.033) but not Th1 cells in peripheral blood. Moreover, IL-17 could promote human endothelial cells to produce chemoattractants IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Conclusion: The increased frequency of peripheral Th17 cells and serum IL-17 levels are shown in childhood HSP that may in part contribute to vascular inflammation, suggesting cellular immunity is likely to be involved in the process of HSP. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

KW - Childhood

KW - Henoch-Schönlein purpura

KW - Interleukin 17

KW - Th17 cells

KW - CD28 antigen

KW - CD3 antigen

KW - interleukin 17

KW - interleukin 23

KW - interleukin 6

KW - interleukin 8

KW - monocyte chemotactic protein 1

KW - transforming growth factor beta

KW - anaphylactoid purpura

KW - article

KW - blood level

KW - cellular immunity

KW - child

KW - clinical article

KW - controlled study

KW - cytokine production

KW - endothelium cell

KW - enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

KW - female

KW - flow cytometry

KW - human

KW - human cell

KW - inflammation

KW - male

KW - pathogenesis

KW - peripheral blood mononuclear cell

KW - priority journal

KW - supernatant

KW - Th1 cell

KW - Th17 cell

KW - Acute Disease

KW - Adolescent

KW - Cell Separation

KW - Cells, Cultured

KW - Chemokine CCL2

KW - Child

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Endothelial Cells

KW - Female

KW - Flow Cytometry

KW - Gene Expression Regulation

KW - Humans

KW - Immunization

KW - Interleukin-17

KW - Interleukin-6

KW - Male

KW - Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch

KW - Th1 Cells

KW - Th17 Cells

KW - Transforming Growth Factor beta

U2 - 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01198.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01198.x

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 862

EP - 868

JO - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

JF - Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

SN - 0905-6157

IS - 8

ER -